BECK index

Chronology of Peacemaking

c. 760 BC Amos prophesied in Israel and Judah.
c. 750 BC Hosea prophesied in Israel.
c. 742-697 BC Isaiah and Micah prophesied in Israel and Judah.
701 BC Egypt and Judah rebelled against Assyria. Isaiah and Micah
c. 700 BC Parshva taught nonviolence in India. Mahavira
c. 630 BC Zephaniah prophesied in Judah.
c. 627-580 BC Jeremiah prophesied in Judah.
c. 620 BC Nahum prophesied in Judah.
612 BC Babylonians captured Nineveh. Micah
c. 600 BC Habakkuk prophesied in Judah.
597 BC Jehoiachin surrendered Jerusalem to Babylon. and
597-588 BC Zedekiah ruled in Jerusalem for Babylon. and
593-563 BC Ezekiel prophesied in Babylon.
586 BC Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar captured Jerusalem. and
551-479 BC Confucius taught humanistic ethics.
c. 540 BC Second Isaiah prophesied in Babylon.
c. 531-510 BC Pythagoras taught at Crotona.
c. 528 BC Buddha founded a religion in India.
c. 520 BC Lao-zi wrote Dao De Jing in Chu.
c. 519 BC Mahavira founded Jain religion in India.
483 BC Buddha died; first Buddhist Council was held.
c. 450 BC Empedocles wrote On Nature and Purifications.
432-393 BC Mo-zi and his disciples intervened to stop wars.
424-405 BC Aristophanes' comedies protested war.
403 BC Socrates refused to cooperate with 30 tyrants.
399 BC Socrates was tried and executed in Athens.
c. 380-323 BC Diogenes founded Cynic school of philosophy.
371-289 BC Mencius taught Confucian philosophy in China.
261-236 BC Ashoka ruled India with Buddhist principles.
c. 260 BC Stoic philosopher Zeno died.
30 BC Hillel came to Judea and began teaching.
c. 27-30 Jesus the Christ taught in Israel.
c. 30 Jesus was crucified by Romans at Jerusalem.
30-61 James was a leader of the church in Jerusalem.
c. 40-97 Pythagorean Apollonius of Tyana taught.
c. 45 Philo Judaeus died in Alexandria.
49-65 Stoic Seneca tutored and advised Nero
c. 70-c. 120 Dio Chrysostom presented Discourses.
75-c. 120 Plutarch taught philosophy.
c. 80-c. 135 Epictetus taught Stoic philosophy.
92-101 Clement was third bishop of Rome.
c. 155 Smyrna bishop Polycarp was killed in a stadium. Martyr
165 Justin Martyr was executed in Rome.
c. 197-204 Tertullian wrote in defense of Christians.
203-54 Origen taught Christian philosophy.
239-74 Mani founded the Manichaean religion.
295 Maximilian refused to be a Roman soldier. Lactantius
c. 303 Arnobius wrote against war. Lactantius
303-27 Lactantius wrote on Christianity.
313 Constantine was converted to Christianity.Lactantius
313-14 Donatists were condemned by Catholics. Lactantius
c. 362-97 Martin refused to fight and lived like a monk.Lactantius
397-430 Augustine developed the "just war" doctrine.
c. 760-801 Rabi'a was a Sufi mystic.
865-925 Al-Razi taught Platonic philosophy, medicine.
882-942 Saadia ben Joseph taught Judaic philosophy.
893-974 Yahya Ibn 'Adi taught Jacobite philosophy. and
922 Sufi al-Hallaj was executed.
936-1030 Miskawayh wrote history, taught philosophy.
989 Church council at Charroux declared Peace of God. Crusades
994-1064 Ibn Hazm wrote wise books.
1022-70 Ibn Gabirol taught Neo-Platonic philosophy.
1027 Church proclaimed the Truce of God. Crusades
c. 1131 Sana'i wrote the Enclosed Garden of Truth.
1137-55 Arnold of Brescia challenged rich clergy.
c. 1140 Gratian published his Decretum. Magna Carta
1141-79 Hildegard of Bingen wrote mystical works.
1167 Cathars were burned at Vézelay.
1188 'Attar wrote The Conference of the Birds.
1190 Gerohus of Regensburg proposed abolishing war. Crusades
1203-76 Albigensian crusade persecuted Cathars.
1208-26 Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans.
1215 Stephen Langton devised the Magna Carta.
1231-73 Rumi taught Sufism.
1257-74 Bonaventure was minister general of Franciscans.
1312 Dante wrote On World-Government.
1324 Marsilius wrote The Defender of Peace.
1339-74 Petrarch advocated humanistic government.
1360-1400 Diplomat Chaucer wrote Canterbury Tales.
1369-1408 Poet John Gower opposed war.
1372-82 Reformer Wyclif translated the Bible.
1382-c. 1500 Lollards opposed war and were persecuted. Wyclif
1415 Jan Hus was burned as a heretic.
c. 1420 Chelcicky renounced all violence.
c. 1460-1518 Kabir wrote mystical poetry.
1489-1536 Erasmus wrote against war and for peace.
1496-1539 Nanak founded the Sikh religion.
1514-66 Las Casas tried to reform Spanish colonies.
1525 Grebel began the Anabaptist movement.
1529-31 Anabaptists refused to fight in civil war.
1535-1685 Hutterites practiced communal living.
1536-46 Vitoria wrote on international law.
1539 Menno wrote Foundation of Christian Doctrine.
1567-1579 Dutch revolted against Spanish imperialism. Ending
1572 Dutch Mennonites refused to go to war. 318
1575 Czechowic wrote Christian Dialogues. Hutterites
1571-1617 Suarez taught theology and law.
1623 Eméric Crucé wrote The New Cyneas.
1623-25 Grotius wrote The Law of War and Peace.
1651 George Fox was in jail because of civil war.
1660 Fox and Quakers signed a Declaration. Penn
1669 Penn wrote No Cross, No Crown in the Tower.
1672 Pufendorf wrote on the law of nations.
1682 Penn founded Pennsylvania for Quakers.
1682-1756 Pennsylvania had a pacifist government.
1693 Penn wrote a peace plan for a European union.
1714 Saint-Pierre wrote a peace plan for Europe.
1740-1750 Wolff wrote on the natural law of nations.
1759 Vattel published his Law of Nations.
1761 Rousseau wrote A Lasting Peace.
1762 Rousseau wrote The Social Contract and Emile.
1765 Americans refused to obey the Stamp Act. Ending
1773 Boston Tea Party resisted British taxation. Ending
1789 Bentham wrote "A Plan for Universal Peace."
1792 Mary Wollstonecraft wrote on women's rights.
1795 Kant published Perpetual Peace.
1815 Congress of Vienna made the Concert of Europe.
1815 Dodge founded the New York Peace Society.
1815 Worcester founded Massachusetts Peace Society.
1816-42 Channing preached against war.
1821 Central America abolished slavery.
1821 Emma Willard founded Troy Female Seminary. Women's Rights
1823 U.S. proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine. Central America
1828 Women workers went on strike at Dover. Women's Rights
1828-29 Frances Wright lectured on sexual equality. Women's Rights
1828-41 Ladd led the American Peace Society.
1831 Garrison began publishing The Liberator.
1833 Prudence Crandall taught Negro girls. Women's Rights
1836 Upham published a Manual of Peace. American Peace Society
1838 Garrison declared nonresistance.
1838 Emerson lectured to the American Peace Society.
1838 Angelina Grimké spoke for women's rights.
1843 World Peace Congress was held in London.
1846 Ballou published Christian Non-Resistance. Abolitionists
1846 Thoreau went to jail for not paying his tax.
1847 Burritt founded League of Universal Brotherhood. Abolitionists
1848 Seneca Falls Convention for women's rights met. Mrs. Stanton
1848-1920 Women worked to gain the vote. Suffragettes
1849 Thoreau wrote "Resistance to Civil Government."
1850-92 Bahá'u'lláh founded the Bahá'í faith.
1851 Harriet Taylor wrote "Enfranchisement of Women." Mill
1854 Burritt wrote on passive resistance. Abolitionists
1858 Lucy Stone refused to pay her taxes.
1867 Deak gained rights for Hungarians. Ending
1868 St. Petersburg conference outlawed cruel weapons. Peace Conferences
1869 J. S. Mill published The Subjection of Women.
1870 Julia Ward Howe proclaimed Mother's Day. Women
1872 Susan B. Anthony was arrested for voting.
1889 Bertha von Suttner wrote Lay Down Your Arms.
1889 Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago.
1893 Tolstoy wrote The Kingdom of God Is Within You.
1899, 1907 The Hague conventions limited war.
1903 Emmeline Pankhurst formed the WSPU.
1905, 1917 Russian revolution had nonviolent phases. Rebelling
1907 Gandhi used mass noncooperation in South Africa.
1909 Gandhi wrote Hind Swaraj.
1909 NAACP was founded.
1911-13 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in Europe and America.
1912 African National Congress was founded. ANC
1913 H. G. Wells wrote The World Set Free. World Government
1914 US Congress passed Mother's Day. Women
1915 Addams founded the Woman's Peace Party.
1915 Maude Royden advocated nonviolent direct action.
1915-35 Jane Addams led WILPF.
1916 Russell led the No Conscription Fellowship.
1917 Woman's Party picketed the White House. Alice Paul
1918.1.8 U.S. President Wilson proposed 14 Points.
1918 Russell was imprisoned for his writing.
1918 Women gained suffrage in England. British
1919.4 Gandhi called and canceled a general strike. Nonviolent Campaign
1919 Versailles Peace Treaty established a League of Nations.
1920 Women gained suffrage in the United States. Catt
1921 Gandhi led mass noncooperation in India. Nonviolent Campaign
1921 Permanent Court of International Justice began. League of Nations
1921.12 Yugoslavia withdrew from Albania. League of Nations
1922.3 British sentenced Gandhi to six years. Nonviolent Campaign
1922 Austria became independent. League of Nations
1925.6 Geneva Protocol banned poisonous weapons. League of Nations
1925.10 Locarno Treaty set German borders. League of Nations
1925.10 League of Nations made peace between Greece and Bulgaria.
1927 France withdrew its garrison from the Saar. League of Nations
1928 Einstein advised refusing military service.
1928.8.7 Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war. League of Nations
1929 Simone Weil advocated complete disarmament.
1930.3 Gandhi led the salt campaign in India.
1931.9.18 Japan invaded Manchuria. League of Nations
1931 Maude Royden proposed a Peace Army.
1932.1 30,000 peasants were massacred in El Salvador. Central America
1932.2 59 nations attended a disarmament conference. League of Nations
1932.9 Gandhi's fast gained rights for untouchables. Nonviolent Campaign
1933 Day and Maurin founded the Catholic Worker.
1933 Japan and Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.
1934 Somoza had Sandino murdered in Nicaragua. Central America
1935-1936 Ethiopia's Selassie asked the League of Nations for help.
1935 The Saar voted to rejoin Germany. League of Nations
1935.10.3 Italy's army invaded Ethiopia. League of Nations
1936.3.7 Hitler sent German troops into the Rhineland. League of Nations
1936.7 Franco attacked the government of Spain. League of Nations
1937 Japan attacked China, which appealed to League of Nations.
1938.3 Germany occupied Austria and Sudetanland. League of Nations
1939.4.7 Italy invaded Albania. League of Nations
1939.5 Spain withdrew from the League of Nations.
1939.8.2 Einstein wrote to Roosevelt about atomic energy.
1939.9.1 Germany invaded Poland. League of Nations
1939.11.30 U.S.S.R. invaded Finland. League of Nations
1940 Muste wrote Nonviolence in an Aggressive World.
1940-1945 Danes resisted German occupation. Ending
1941.8 Roosevelt and Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter.
1942-44 Gandhi was under arrest for protesting war. Nonviolent
1942-1945 Norwegian teachers refused to teach Nazi ideas. Ending
1943 Wendell Wilkie published One World.
1944 ANC formed a Youth League.
1944 Myrdal published An American Dilemma. Desegregation
1945 Chief Luthuli joined the ANC.
1945.8 World War II ended with atomic bombings.
1945.10.24 The United Nations was formed.
1945 Emery Reves wrote The Anatomy of Peace. World Government
1946.5 Soviet troops withdrew from Iran. UN Peacekeeping
1946.12.11 UN affirmed Nuremberg Principles.
1947.8.15 Indian and Pakistan gained independence.
1948.1.30 Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu. Nonviolent
1948.5.14 Israel became a nation. UN Peacekeeping
1948 CIA intervened in Italian elections. Chomsky
1948.12.10 UN adopted Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
1949.4.4 NATO alliance was founded. Domination
1949.4 Pacifica radio was founded. Nonviolence
1949.7.27 UN gained a cease-fire in Kashmir. UN Peacekeeping
1949.8.12 Geneva Conventions were signed.
1949.12.27 Indonesia became independent. UN Peacekeeping
1950.6.25 UN reacted to North Korea's invasion. UN Peacekeeping
1950 Grenville Clark published A Plan for Peace.
1952 Luthuli was elected ANC president.
1953 Peace Pilgrim began walking around the U.S. and
1953.6 300,000 East Germans went on strike. Rebelling
1953.7.27 U.S. agreed to an armistice in Korea. UN Peacekeeping
1953.8.19 CIA helped overthrow Mossadegh in Iran. Chomsky
1954.12.23 Russell spoke over BBC on "Man's Peril."
1954.5.7 French were defeated at Dienbienphu.
1954.5.17 US Supreme Court overturned racial segregation. Desegregation
1954.6 CIA helped overthrow Arbenz in Guatemala. Central America
1955 Warsaw Pact alliance was founded. Domination
1955.6 Freedom Charter was proclaimed in South Africa. ANC
1955 Day and others refused a civil defense drill.
1955-56 King led the Montgomery bus boycott.
1956.11.2 UN gained a cease-fire at the Suez Canal. UN Peacekeeping
1956.11 Hungarian uprising was crushed by Soviet tanks. Rebelling
1957 Russell organized Pugwash Conferences. Nuclear
1957 SANE was founded to abolish nuclear weapons.
1957.9 Arkansas schools were integrated. Desegregation
1958 King published Stride Toward Freedom.
1958 Linus Pauling wrote No More War! Nuclear
1958.4 Schweitzer spoke by radio on atomic weapons.
1958.6 UN observers went to Lebanon. UN Peacekeeping
1958 World Peace Through World Law was published.
1959.4 Sobukwe founded Pan-African Congress. ANC
1959.9.19 Khrushchev suggested complete disarmament. McCloy-Zorin
1960.3.21 Police killed 69 Africans at Sharpeville. ANC
1960 Sit-ins led to founding of SNCC.
1960-61 Mandela defended in treason trial. ANC
1960-64 UN intervened in the Congo. UN Peacekeeping
1961 King led Freedom Rides.
1961.9.25 Kennedy proposed complete disarmament. McCloy-Zorin
1961 20,000 sat down at a U.S. Polaris base. Russell
1961 Women Strike for Peace began protesting.
1962 Chavez organized National Farm Workers.
1962.9 Meredith went to University of Mississippi. SNCC
1962.10 Thant, Russell mediated Cuban missile crisis. UN Peacekeeping
1962.11 Dutch withdrew from West New Guinea. UN Peacekeeping
1963.2.9 CIA helped overthrow Kassem in Iraq.
1963.4 King wrote a letter from Birmingham jail.
1963.6.12 Medgar Evers was murdered in Jackson. SNCC
1963.8.5 Partial nuclear test ban treaty was signed.
1963.8.28 250,000 heard King's "I Have a Dream" speech.
1963-1964 UN observers went to Yemen. UN Peacekeeping
1963-90 Mandela was imprisoned in South Africa.
1964.3 UN Peacekeepers went to Cyprus.
1964.7 U.S. Civil Rights Act became law. King
1964.8.7 U.S. Congress passed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Vietnam
1964.9 Savio led Free Speech Movement at Berkeley. Path
1965 SDS and others protested the Vietnam War.
1965.4 U.S. intervened in the Dominican Republic. UN Peacekeeping
1965.8 U.S. Voting Rights Act became law. King
1965.10 U.S. backed a coup in Indonesia. UN Peacekeeping
1966 Russell convened a Vietnam War Crimes Tribunal.
1966 United Farm Workers began grape boycott.
1966, 1971 UN observed cease-fire in Kashmir. UN Peacekeeping
1967 King called for an end to the Vietnam War.
1967 Many thousands protested the Vietnam War.
1967.6 Israel occupied West Bank and other territories. UN Peacekeeping
1967 Chomsky and Zinn wrote against the Vietnam War.
1968 Latin American bishops decided to help the poor. Central America
1968 Dubcek led Czech liberalization. Rebelling
1968.4.4 King was killed while working for the poor.
1968.5.17 Catonsville 9 led by Berrigans burned draft files. Vietnam War
1969.11.15 A million people marched against the Vietnam War.
1969-70 U.S. bombing killed 300,000 Cambodians. Vietnam War
1970.5.4 Four protesting students were killed at Kent State. Vietnam War
1971.4 Vietnam veterans protested in Washington.
1971.6 Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers. Vietnam War
1972 Duarte was elected but exiled from El Salvador. Central America
1972-74 Greenpeace disrupted French nuclear tests.
1973.7 U.S. Congress stopped funding the Vietnam War.
1973.9.11 CIA helped overthrow Allende in Chile. Chomsky
1973.10.6 Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. UN Peacekeeping
1975.2 People stopped a nuclear power plant at Wyhl.
1975.4.30 Last Americans evacuated Vietnam.
1975-77 200,000 were killed in East Timor. Chomsky
1976.6.1 Syria invaded Lebanon. UN Peacekeeping
1976-77 Soweto uprising was repressed. Black Consciousness
1977.5.1 1,414 were arrested at Seabrook. Nuclear Power
1977.9.12 Biko was killed in custody.
1978.6 United Nations held first session on disarmament. Nuclear Weapons
1978, 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon. UN Peacekeeping
1979.3.26 Carter made peace between Israel and Egypt. UN Peacekeeping
1979.7.19 Sandinistas overthrew Somoza in Nicaragua.
1979.12.27 Soviet army invaded Afghanistan. UN Peacekeeping
1979-2005 Dr. Caldicott of PSR spoke about nuclear war. Freeze
1980 Nuclear weapons freeze proposal gained support.
1980.3.24 Archbishop Romero was assassinated in El Salvador.
1980 Solidarity Union grew to ten million in Poland. Rebelling
1980.9.9 Berrigans led Plowshares 8 action. Nuclear Weapons
1980-88 Iraq attacked Iran and fought a war. UN Peacekeeping
1981.9 1,900 were arrested at Diablo Canyon. Nuclear Power
1981.11 1,300 were arrested in Women's Pentagon Action. Nuclear Weapons
1982.1 Sanctuary movement began helping Salvadorans.
1982.2 Schell published The Fate of the Earth. Nuclear Weapons Freeze
1982 Millions of women demonstrated for peace. Feminism
1982.6.14 1,691 were arrested at the United Nations. Nuclear
1982.6.21 1,400 were arrested at Livermore Lab. Nuclear
1982.9 Israel massacred Palestinians at Sabra and Shatila. Chomsky
1982.1213 2,000 Greenham Common women were arrested. Nuclear Weapons
1983.3 777 were arrested at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Nuclear Weapons
1983.3 Green Party won 27 seats in the Bundestag. Nuclear Weapons
1983.4 Witness for Peace began visiting Nicaragua. Proxy Wars
1983.6.20 1,066 were arrested at Livermore Lab. Nuclear Weapons
1983.10.25 U.S. Marines invaded Grenada. Chomsky
1984 Desmond Tutu won Nobel Peace Prize. South Africa
1984 Winooski 44 were acquitted by a jury. Resisting
1984 Pledge of Resistance began.
1985.3.11 Gorbachev proposed ending the nuclear arms race.
1985-89 Gorbachev implemented perestroika and glasnost.
1986 Great Peace March crossed the United States. Nuclear Weapons
1986.6.27 World Court convicted U.S. of attacking Nicaragua. Chomsky
1986.10 Iran-Contra scandal was exposed.
1986-94 Thousands protested nuclear testing in Nevada.
1987 Greenpeace began a Nuclear Free Seas campaign. Nuclear Testing
1987.9.1 Brian Willson was run over by a munitions train. Resisting
1987 U.S. boycotted UN Disarmament Conference. Chomsky
1988 Medea Benjamin co-founded Global Exchange.
1988-89 Soviet army withdrew from Afghanistan. UN Peacekeeping
1988-91 UN verified peace in Angola. UN Peacekeeping
1989.11.1 Independent Namibia held elections. UN Peacekeeping
1989 Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia became free. Eastern Europe
1989 1,452 in Pledge of Resistance were arrested.
1989.12.20 U.S. invaded Panama to capture Noriega. Chomsky
1990.2 East and West Germany were reunited. Eastern Europe
1990 UN demobilized the Contras. UN Peacekeeping
1990.8.2 Iraq invaded Kuwait. UN Peacekeeping
1990-91 U.S.S.R. dissolved into independent republics. Eastern Europe
1990-92 El Salvador and the FMLN made peace. UN Peacekeeping
1990 UN authorized U.S. attack on Iraq and Kuwait. UN Peacekeeping
1990-2003 UN sanctions caused a million deaths in Iraq.
1991 U.S. killed 175,000 Iraqis.
1991 Warsaw Pact was dissolved. Eastern Europe
1991.11.12 Goodman reported massacre in East Timor. Feminism
1991-93 UN intervened in Cambodia. UN Peacekeeping
1991-96 UN intervened in Yugoslavia. UN Peacekeeping
1992 Earth Summit met at Rio de Janeiro.
1992-1995 UN monitored cease-fire in Somalia. UN Peacekeeping
1993 Gorbachev founded Green Cross International.
1993 Mandela and De Klerk won Nobel Peace Prize.
1993-96 UN intervened in Haiti. UN Peacekeeping
1994-99 Mandela was president of South Africa.
1996.3 VitW delegations began visiting Iraq. Kelly
1996 UN verified peace in Guatemala. UN Peacekeeping
1996 Amy Goodman began Pacifica's Democracy Now. Feminism
1996-98 TRC helped heal South Africa. Truth
1997.3 UN began Oil for Food program in Iraq.
1997.11.16 601 were arrested at the School of the Americas. Resisting
1997.12 Mine Ban Treaty was signed in Ottawa. Nonviolence
1998.12 US and UK bombed Iraq.
1999 NATO bombed to drive Serbs out of Kosovo. UN Peacekeeping
1999.12 Protests disturbed WTO meeting in Seattle. Benjamin
2000.6 Earth Charter mission was launched.
2001.9.11 Terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center.
2001.10.7 U.S. attacked Taliban in Afghanistan. US Hegemony
2001.10.26 US Patriot Act became law. Bush
2002.5.20 East Timor became an independent nation. UN Peacekeeping
2002.10 US Congress authorized Iraq invasion. Bush
2002.10 CIA killed 6 al-Qaida in Yemen. US Hegemony
2002.11 Code Pink: Women for Peace was founded.
2002 Earth Charter was recognized by the UN.
2003.2.15 Millions marched to protest imminent Iraq War.
2003.3.19 US, UK, and others invaded Iraq.
2003.3 Thousands were arrested for protesting Iraq War.
2003.5 US Congress approved new nuclear weapons. US Hegemony
2003 Chomsky wrote Hegemony or Survival.
2004.2.28 US forces abducted Aristide from Haiti. UN Peacekeeping
2004.4 Abu Ghraib prison abuse was exposed. Iraq
2005.1 UN mediated a peace agreement in the Sudan. UN Peacekeeping
2005 Thousands of US military went AWOL. Iraq
2005.5 World Tribunal on Iraq charged Bush and Blair.
2005.6 Democrats held hearings on Bush's lies. Iraq

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BECK index