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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)
c. 4000 Wheat, barley, peas, sesame irrigated in Indus valley.
c. 4000 Asses, horses, buffalo, camels, cattle bred in Indus.
c. 3000 Brick houses built and cotton woven in Indus valley.
c. 2500 Copper and bronze used in Indus valley.
c. 2300 Urban phase began in Indus valley.
c. 1900 Decline of Harappan civilization.
c. 1100 Kosalas and Videhas ruled northern India. Vedas
c. 950 Aryan conquest covered northern India. Vedas
c. 900-700 Brahmanas composed in India.
c. 900 Bharata war in India. Brahmanas
c. 900 Arishtanemi refused to sacrifice deer at his wedding. Brahmanas
c. 750-400 Upanishads composed in India.
c. 700 Parshva taught nonviolence in India. Mahavira
c. 650 Kapila founded Samkhya philosophy.
c. 600 Dharma Sutras passed on orally in India.
563 Siddartha Gautama (Buddha) born in India.
c. 562 Mahavira born in India.
c. 550 Purana Kassapa taught no-action in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Pakudha Katyayana taught eternalism in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Ajita Keshakambalin taught materialism in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Sanjaya Belatthiputta taught equanimity in India. Contemporaries
c. 544-491 Bimbisara ruled Magadha.
534 Siddartha Gautama renounced the world in India.
c. 532 Mahavira renounced the world in India.
528 Buddha founded a religion in India.
c. 520 Mankhali Gosala taught transformation in India. Contemporaries
c. 519 Mahavira founded Jain religion in India.
508 Ananda became Buddha's personal attendant.
c491 Devadatta caused schism among Buddhists. Community (Sangha)
c. 491-460 Ajatashatru ruled Magadha.
c. 490-470 Mahavira died; Sudharma led Jain order in India.
483 Buddha died; first Buddhist Council led by Mahakassapa. Community (Sangha)
c. 470-452 Arya Jambu Swamy led Jain order in India.
c. 400 Ramayana passed on orally.
c. 400 Mahabharata by Vyasa passed on orally.
c. 400 Vaishesika Sutras by Kanada.
c. 350 Nyaya Sutras by Gautama.
c. 350 Mimamsa Sutra by Jaimini.
c. 350 Vedanta Sutra by Badarayana.
c. 350 Jataka tales told in India.
324-300 Chandragupta founded Mauryan dynasty.
317 Eudemus left India. Mauryan Empire
c. 300 Ju Yuan composed Songs of Chu.
c. 300 Kautilya wrote Artha Shastra.
c. 273-236 Ashoka ruled India.
261 Ashoka converted to Buddhism.
c. 247 Ashoka prohibited killing animals for sport.
247-207 Devanampiyatissa ruled Ceylon. India
c. 200 Yoga Sutras written by Patanjali. Yoga
196 Edict promoting men of virtue in China. Han Dynasty
c. 187 Brihadratha's death ended Mauryan dynasty in India.
c. 187-151 Pushyamitra ruled in India.
175 Bactrians invaded northern Mauryan empire.
c. 170 Bactrian king Demetrius II conquered northwest India.
c. 150 Laws of Manu written.
c. 150 Panchatantra tales written down.
145-101 Elara ruled Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
101-77 Dutthagamani ruled and unified Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
c. 100 Bhagavad-Gita written.
77-59 Saddhatissa ruled Sri Lanka. India
c. 75-30 Kanvas dynasty ruled in India.
30-7 Satavana king Simuka ruled Andhra in India.
29-17 Vattagamani ruled island of Lanka. India
26 Romans secured sea trade to Somalia and India.
c. 20 Buddhist Tripitaka was written in Pali. India
16-38 Kutkannatissa ruled Lanka. India
22 End of Shaka Maues' 40-year rule of Pahlava India.
39 Lady Trung Trac led rebellion in Vietnam.
c. 50 Buddhist Surangama Sutra written in Sanskrit. India
c. 52-68 Thomas established Syrian churches in Malabar. India
78-101 Kanishka ruled western half of northern India.
c. 100 Buddhist Ashvaghosha wrote poetry, and plays. India
c. 125 Gautamiputra Satakarni restored Satavana kingdom. India
127-71 Vasabha founded dynasty on Lanka. India
145-76 Vasudeva ruled Kushanas. India
c. 150 Nagarjuna founded Madhyamika school of Buddhism. India
c. 150 Indonesian traders settled on Madagascar. Java
174-96 Gajabahu ruled Lanka and invaded Cholas. India
c. 200 Tamil poem The Ankle Bracelet (Silappadikaram). India
c. 200 Jain philosopher Kunda Kunda taught. India
c. 200 Bharata wrote Natya Shastra. India
c. 200 Bhasa wrote plays in India.
269-91 Voharikatissa ruled Lanka. India
270-80 Funan and Champa fought Chinese. Vietnam
291-99 Abhayanaga invaded and ruled Lanka. India
309-22 Gothabhaya ruled Lanka and persecuted monks. India
320 Chandra-gupta I inaugurated Gupta empire.
334-62 Mahasena ruled Lanka. India
c. 340-80 Samudra-gupta ruled Gupta empire.
350 Sassanian king Shapur II made treaty with Kushanas. India
c. 350 Vasubandhu taught Yogachara Buddhism. India
380-414 Chandra-gupta II ruled Gupta empire.
c. 400 Kalidasa wrote plays and poetry in India.
c. 400-1000 Puranas written in India.
414-55 Kumara-gupta ruled Gupta empire.
431 Chinese attacked Champa. Vietnam
446 Dongking governor Tan Ho-chu attacked Champa. Vietnam
455-67 Skanda-gupta ruled Gupta empire and defeated Huns.
c. 515-30 Huna Mihirakula ruled India.
543 Funan king Rudravarman raided Dongking. Vietnam
544-47 Li Bon ruled Nam Viet. Vietnam
566-97 Kirtivarman I ruled Chalukyas. India
580-606 Prabhakara-vardhana ruled Thaneswar. India
597-610 Mangalesha ruled Chalukyas. India
c. 600 Tiru Valluvar wrote Tamil classic The Kural. India
602 Li family rebellion crushed in Vietnam.
606-47 Harsha conquered northern India and wrote plays.
610-42 Pulakeshin II ruled Chalukya empire. India
627 Chenla king Ishanavarman annexed Funan. Cambodia
c. 640 Bana wrote epic romances in Harsha's court. India
643 Xuan Zang observed a great assembly at Kanauj. India
655-81 Vikramaditya I ruled the Chalukya empire. India
662-84 Shiladitya III ruled Valabhi and conquered Gurjara. India
668-703 Manavarman ruled Lanka. India
676-704 'Dus-srong ruled Tibet.
685 Zabul's army was routed by the Arabs. India
692 Tibet regained four Turkestan garrisons.
696-733 Vijayaditya ruled the Chalukya empire. India
702 Nepal revolted from Tibet.
704-16 Pure Land Buddhist Ci-min traveled in India.
705-55 Khri-Ide-btsug-brtan ruled Tibet.
713 Kashmir asked China for aid against Arabs. India
c. 720 Bhavabhuti wrote plays in India.
c. 724-60 Lalitaditya ruled Kashmir. India
c. 730 Vedanta philosopher Shankara taught in India.
733-47 Vikramaditya II ruled Chalukya empire. India
c. 735 Valabhi kingdom was destroyed by Arab invasion. India
736 Tibet attacked Gilgit.
740-41 Tibet expelled foreign monks during a plague.
744-57 Kirtivarman II was the last ruler of the Chalukya empire. India
748-79 Kolofeng ruled Nanchao. Vietnam
749 Padmasambhava founded Adi-yoga Tibetan Buddhism.
750 Nan-chao allied with Tibet.
753 Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga controlled Maharashtra. Hindu Kingdoms
755 Tibet collected tribute from the Pala king of Bengal.
755-97 Khri-slon-Ide-brtsan ruled Tibet.
774 Javanese invaded Annam and Champa. Java
785 Tibet invaded Shensi.
788-820 Shankara taught Vedanta philosophy. Hindu Kingdoms
791 Buddhism was made the official religion of Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
793-814 Rashtrakuta king Govinda III ruled most of India. Hindu Kingdoms
c. 799-847 Vijayaditya II ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
801 Nan-zhao and China invaded Tibet. Tang Dynasty
802-50 Jayavarman II ruled Cambodia.
804 Tibetan king Mu-ne-btsan-po was murdered. Tibet
817 Vengi king Vijayaditya II overthrew Rashtrakutas. Hindu Kingdoms
817-37 Ral-pa-can ruled Tibet.
821 Karakka reinstated Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I. Hindu Kingdoms
822 Tibetan king Ral-pa-can made peace with China. Tibet
824-44 Sena I ruled Lanka, fled Pandyas. Hindu Kingdoms
832 Nanchao plundered the Pyu capital. Vietnam
844-79 Sena II ruled Lanka and defeated the Pandyas. Hindu Kingdoms
848-92 Vijayaditya III ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
849 Burmese capital of Pagan was founded. Burma
854-93 Indravarman II ruled Champa. Cambodia
855-83 Avanti-varman ruled Kashmir. Hindu Kingdoms
863 Nanchao captured the Annam capital. Vietnam
871-907 Aditya I ruled the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
878-914 Rashtrakuta king Krishna II fought wars. Hindu Kingdoms
892-922 Chalukya-Bhima I ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
907-53 Parantaka I ruled the Chola empire in south India. Hindu Kingdoms
914-22 Rashtrakuta king Indra III captured Kanauj. Hindu Kingdoms
929-47 Sindok founded a dynasty in east Java.
939 Vietnam became independent.
939-67 Rashtrakuta king Krishna III ruled an empire in India. Hindu Kingdoms
945 Cambodians invaded Champa.
949 Rashtrakuta king Krishna III defeated the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
953-69 Mahendra IV ruled Lanka and restored monasteries. Hindu Kingdoms
974 Chalukya king Taila II defeated Ganga Marasimha III. Hindu Kingdoms
974-95 Rajamalla IV ruled Gangas. Hindu Kingdoms
979-1027 Mahendra V ruled Lanka. India
980-1003 Queen Didda ruled Kashmir. Hindu Kingdoms
981 Annam (Vietnam) repelled a Song invasion.
985-1014 Rajaraja I ruled the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
988-1069 Buddhist Tilopa taught Naropa in India.
c. 989 Invading Ghazni sultan Sabutkin defeated Hindu chiefs. Muslim Invaders
990-1006 Srivijaya fought east Java.
992-1074 Drogmi taught Tantric Buddhism in Tibet.
1000-27 Ghazni ruler Mahmud invaded India 12 times.
1002-50 Suryavarman I ruled Cambodia.
1009-28 Ly Cong Uan ruled Vietnam.
1012-44 Rajendra I co-ruled the Chola empire. India
1012-96 Kagyu-pa Buddhist Marpa taught Milarepa. Tibetan Buddhism
1013 Mahmud attacked and annexed most of the Punjab. Muslim Invaders
1016-1100 Naropa taught Marpa Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1017-1137 Ramanuja taught non-dualist devotion to Vishnu. India
1017-73 Zhou Dunyi commented on the Book of Changes. Song Dynasty
1018-52 Rajadhiraja I co-ruled the Chola empire. India
1018-86 Sima Guang wrote a comprehensive history of China. Song Dynasty
1019-42 Airlangga ruled Java.
1020-77 Zhang Zai wrote Correcting Youthful Ignorance. Song Dynasty
1024 Paper money was introduced in China. Song Dynasty
1025 Cholas invaded Malayu. India
1025 Mahmud's army killed 50,000 Hindus in Kathiawar. Muslim Invaders
1028-54 Ly Phat Ma ruled Vietnam.
1034 Punjab governor Ahmad Niyaltigin plundered Banaras. India
1040-1123 Milarepa taught Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1042 Minh-dao law code was promulgated in Vietnam.
1042 Atisha brought Buddhist reforms from India to Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1043 Bhoja and Hindu chiefs conquered Muslim territories. India
1043-68 Someshvara I ruled the Chalukyas. India
1044-77 Anawrahta ruled Burma.
1047-1101 Vinayaditya ruled Hoysalas. India
1054-72 Ly Nhat Ton ruled Vietnam.
1055-1110 Vijayabahu ruled Lanka. India
1057-61 Vietnam battled Chinese.
1068-76 Someshvara II ruled the Chalukyas. India
c. 1070 Vidyakara collected Treasury of Well-Turned Verse. Literature of Medieval India
c. 1070 Somadeva wrote Ocean of the Streams of Story. Literature of Medieval India
1070-1120 Kulottunga I ruled the Cholas. India
1072-1127 Ly Can Duc ruled Vietnam.
1073 Dkon-mchog Rgyal-po founded Sakya monastery in Tibet.
1076-1126 Vikramaditya VI ruled the Chalukyas. India
1078 China produced 114,000 tons of cast iron. Song Dynasty
1081 Hiei monks set fire to a monastery at Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
1086 Chola king Kulottunga I ordered a land survey. India
1086-1129 Shirakawa ruled Japan as retired emperor priest.
1088 Lanka king Vijayabahu made peace with the Cholas. India
1088-1172 Hemachandra taught Jainism. India
1096 Cholas under Kulottunga I invaded Kalinga. India
1110 Poet Jayangondar described Chola invasion of Kalinga. India
1113-50 Suryavarman II ruled Cambodia and annexed Champa.
1113-65 Alaungsithu ruled Burma.
1118-35 Vikrama Chola ruled Cholas. India
1147 Tusum founded Khyenpa Karmapa Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1150 Lharje founded Cur-lka monastery in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1156 Kalachuri king Bijjala took Kalyana from Chalukyas. India
1163-79 Rajadhiraja II ruled Cholas. India
1173 Ghuzz Turks made Muhammad Ghuri governor of Ghazni. India
1173-1220 Ballala II ruled Hoysalas. India
1174-1211 Narapatisithu ruled Burma.
1177 Champa attacked Angkor. Cambodia
1178 Lakshmanasena began ruling Bengal. India
1178 Muhammad Ghuri attacked Gujurat. India
1178-1216 Kulottunga III ruled Cholas, ravaged Pandyas. India
1186 Muhammad Ghuri captured Khusrav Malik at Lahore. Muslim Invaders
1190 Cambodia invaded Champa.
1190 Buddhist monk Chapata returned to Burma.
1192-99 Yoritomi ruled Japan as shogun.
1193 Hoysala king Ballala II proclaimed independence. India
1197 Aybak's Muslim army invaded Gujurat, killing 50,000. Muslim Invaders
1197-1276 Madhva taught dualist Vedanta philosophy. Hindu
1202 Aybak besieged Chandella king Paramardi at Kalanjara. India
1203-20 Champa was ruled by Cambodia.
1206 Muhammad Ghuri murdered at Lahore. Muslim Invaders
1216 Iltutmish captured his rival Yildiz in the Punjab. India
1220-34 Narasimha II ruled Hoysala. India
1221 Mongols led by Genghis Khan invaded India and Persia.
1225 Tran dynasty founded in Vietnam.
1229-36 Baghdad Caliph recognized Iltutmish as Delhi sultan. India
1234 Chahadadeva captured Narwar from Muslims. India
1234-63 Someshvara ruled Hoysalas. India
1238 Thais defeated Khmers at Sukothai. Thailand
1239 Mongol army led by Ogodei's son Koden invaded Tibet.
1239-1317 Thai leader Mangrai founded Chiengmai. Thailand
1243-95 Jayavarman VIII ruled Cambodia.
1244 Tibetan Sakya Panchen initiated Godan in Mongolia.
1245 Mongols invaded India.
1246-79 Rajendra III ruled Cholas. India
1251 Muslim general Balban defeated Chahadadeva. Muslim Invaders
1252 Mongols invaded Tibet.
1253-54 Indian Muslim Raihan replaced Balban at Delhi. India
1253-1325 Amir Khusrau wrote Persian poetry. Muslim Invaders
1256-87 Narathihapate misruled Burma.
1257 Mongols pillaged Hanoi. Vietnam
1265-87 Balban ruled Delhi sultanate. India
1268-92 Kertanagara ruled Java.
1268-1310 Maravarman Kulashekhara ruled Pandyas. India
1277, 1283 Mongol army defeated Burmese. Burma
1279 Pandyas annexed territories of Cholas and Hoysalas. India
1279-98 Ramkamhaeng ruled Thais at Sukothai. Thailand
1285 Mongols invaded India.
1285 Kublai Khan's son Togan defeated by Vietnam.
1290 Chinese army burned Drigung temple in Tibet.
1290 Khalji Jalal-ud-din Firuz became sultan in Delhi. India
c. 1293 Marco Polo visited south India.
1295 Malayu submitted to Thailand.
1295-1308 Indravarman III ruled Cambodia with Buddhism.
1296-1316 'Ala-ud-din Khalji ruled Delhi Sultanate. Delhi Sultanate
1299 Mongols invaded India.
1303 Khalji army killed 30,000 Hindus at Chitor. Delhi Sultanate
1311 Kafur invaded Ma'bar from Devagiri. Delhi Sultanate
1312 Vietnam's Tran Anh Ton invaded Champa.
1320-25 Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah ruled in Delhi.
1320-57 Minh-ton ruled Vietnam.
1325-51 Muhammad bin Tughluq ruled as Delhi sultan.
1330-64 Vizier Gaja Mada expanded Javanese empire.
1334 Ma'bar rebelled against Delhi.
1334-42 Ibn Battuta visited India. Delhi Sultanate
1336 Vijayanagar became independent of Delhi. North India
1336-56 Harihara I ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1338 Bengal became independent of Delhi.
1347-1527 Bahmani kingdom ruled Deccan. Delhi Sultanate, South India
1350-69 Ramadhipati ruled Siam and founded Ayudhya.
1350-89 Hayam Wuruk ruled Java.
1351-88 Firuz Shah ruled as Delhi sultan.
1353-71 Fa Ngum founded and ruled Laos.
1353-85 Binnya U ruled Mon. Burma
1355-85 Ku Na ruled Chiang Mai, promoted Buddhism. Laos
1356-77 Bukka I ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1359-89 Sikander ruled Bengal. Delhi Sultanate
1365 Prapanca wrote poem Nagarakertagama. Java
1368-1401 Mingyi Swasawke ruled Burma.
1370-88 Boromaraja I ruled Siam, took over Sukhothai.
1371 Champa sacked Hanoi. Vietnam
1373-1416 Sam Sene Thai ruled Laos.
1377-1404 Harihara II ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1385-1423 Razadarit ruled Mon. Burma
1389-1429 Vikramavarddhana ruled Java.
1390 Gujarat's Farhat-ul-Mulk became independent. Delhi Sultanate
1390-1422 Marwar became independent under Chunda. North India
1398-99 Timur invaded India, massacred Hindus. Delhi Sultanate
1401 Gujarat became independent of Delhi. North India
1402-40 Ibrahim Sharqi ruled kingdom of Jaunpur. Delhi Sultanate
1405-12 Mahmud ruled small Delhi kingdom.
1406-22 Devaraya I ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1409 Tsongkhapa founded Gelugpa Buddhism. North India
1411-43 Ahmad ruled Gujarat as sultan. North India
1411-65 Parakramabahu VI ruled Sri Lanka. South India
1413-20 'Ali Shah ruled Kashmir and killed Hindus. North India
1414 Paramesvara in Melaka converted to Islam. Malaya
1414-21 Khizr Khan ruled Delhi.
1418-27 Vietnamese drove Chinese out of Annam.
1420-70 Zain-ul 'Abidin ruled Kashmir. North India
1421-34 Mubarak Shah ruled Delhi.
1422-46 Devaraya II ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1424-48 Boromaraja II ruled Siam, conquered Angkor.
1434 Khmer court moved capital to Phnom Penh. Cambodia
1436-58 Ahmad II ruled Bahmani kingdom. South India
1437-59 Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah ruled Bengal. North India
1438-88 Jodha ruled Marwar. North India
1441-78 Paya Sai Tiakapat ruled Laos.
1448-88 Trailok ruled Siam as a monk.
1450 Kabir used methods of Islam and Hinduism.
1452-89 Afghan Buhlul Khan ruled Delhi sultanate.
1458-1511 Mahmud Begarha ruled Gujarat. North India
1460-98 Le Thanh Tong ruled Vietnam.
1467-97 Purushottama ruled Orissa. South India
1469-1539 Nanak founded the Sikh religion.
1471 Annam (Vietnam) annexed most of Champa.
1486-1527 Girindrawardhana was last king of Majapahit. Java
1486-1531 Mingyinyo founded Taungngu dynasty of Burma.
1486-1533 Chaitanya practiced devotional love.
1489-1517 Sikander Shah ruled as Delhi sultan.
1491-1529 Ramathibodi II ruled Siam.
1493-1519 'Ala-ud-din Husain Shah ruled Bengal. North India
1497-1540 Prataparudra ruled Orissa. South India, Chaitanya
1500-20 Visunarat ruled Laos.
1504 Babur conquered Kabul. Mughal
1504 Sikander Shah founded city of Agra. Delhi Sultanate
1505 Almeida became first Portuguese viceroy. South India
1509-28 Sanga ruled kingdom of Mewar. Delhi Sultanate
1509-29 Krishna Deva Raya ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1510 Albuquerque conquered Goa. South India
1511 Albuquerque conquered Melaka. Malaya
1511-26 Gujarat's Muzaffar II fought the Rajputs. North India
1515-32 Ganga ruled Marwar. North India
1517-26 Sikander's son Ibrahim ruled Delhi sultanate.
1519-30 Babur invaded India five times. Mughal
1520-47 Photisarath ruled Laos.
1521 Magellan was killed on island of Cebu. Philippines
1526 Babur founded Mughal dynasty in India.
1529-38 Portuguese Nuno da Cunha colonized India. European Trade
1530 Portuguese attacked coast of Gujarat. European Trade
1530-39 Humayun ruled Mughal empire.
1539-45 Sher Khan took over Mughal empire.
1542 Jesuits led by Francis Xavier arrived in India. European Trade
1542-65 Rama Raya ruled Vijayanagara. Southern India
1543-88 Sonam Gyatso was named Dalai Lama. Tibet
1545-56 Humayun ruled Mughal empire.
1551-97 Portuguese helped Dharmapala rule Sri Lanka. Southern India
1552-74 Amar Das was the third Sikh Guru.
1556-1605 Akbar ruled Mughal empire.
1564-86 Burma invaded and dominated Siam.
1565 Legazpi began colonizing the Philippines.
1567 Akbar besieged Mewar's capital of Chitor.
1570-1623 Trinh Tong ruled Tongking. Vietnam
1570-1773 Trinh, Nguyen families ruled divided Vietnam.
1571 Manila was founded. Philippines
1573 Akbar's Mughal army conquered Gujarat.
1574 Tulsidas began writing Ramacaritamanasa.
1575 Akbar began sponsoring religious debates.
1578 5th Dalai Lama converted Mongol Altan Khan. Tibet
1579 Akbar proclaimed himself religious authority.
1585 Akbar transferred his capital to Lahore.
1586 Qasim Khan annexed Kashmir to Mughal empire.
1586-1614 Venkata II ruled Vijayanagara. Southern India
1590-1605 Naresuan ruled Siam.
1593 Three Siamese armies invaded Cambodia.
1593-1815 Spain made Philippines commerce go by Mexico.
1597-1620 Rana Amar Singh ruled Mewar. Jahangir
1598 Emperor Akbar visited Guru Arjun. Sikhs
1602 Dutch formed United East India Company. European Trade, Java
1603 Siam made Cambodia a vassal state.
1604 Sikh scripture Adi Granth was completed.
1604-35 Senerath ruled Kandy. Southern India
1605-27 Jahangir ruled Mughal empire.
1606 Sikh Guru Arjun was tortured and killed. Jahangir
1606-44 Guru Hargobind organized a Sikh army.
1607-36 Iskandar Muda ruled Acheh. Sumatra
1608-49 Tukaram wrote mystical poetry. Maharashtra Mystics
1610-28 Songtham ruled Siam.
1611 English defeated Portuguese off Bombay. European Trade
1611 Jahangir married Persian Nur Jahan.
1611-22 Itimad-ud-daula was Mughal prime minister. Jahangir
1613-46 Agung ruled Mataram in central Java.
1615 British navy defeated Portuguese off Swally. European Trade
1618 Jahangir granted English trade exemption.
1618-30 Ramadevaraya ruled Vijayanagara. Southern India
1619 Dutch made Batavia their East Indies capital. Java
1621 Khurram had Khusrau secretly killed. Jahangir
1622-32 Itiqad Khan governed Kashmir.
1622-82 5th Dalai Lama united Tibet.
1623-57 Trinh Trang ruled Tongking. Vietnam
1627-56 Muhammad 'Adil Shah ruled Bijapur. Southern India
1627-80 Shivaji Bhonsla led Maratha rebellion. Southern India
1628-58 Shah Jahan ruled Mughal empire.
1629 Mughal empire suffered famine. Shah Jahan
1630-56 Prasat Tong ruled Siam tyrannically.
1631 Mumtaz Mahal died in childbirth. Shah Jahan
1632 Mughal army defeated Portuguese at Hughli. Shah Jahan
1634 Kashmir's Zafar Khan invaded western Tibet.
1635 Chogthu Mongols invaded Tibet.
1635-87 Rajasimha II ruled Kandy. Southern India
1637-44 Aurangzeb governed the Deccan. Shah Jahan
1637-94 Souligna-Vongsa ruled Laos.
1639 English built Fort St. George at Madras. European Trade
1639-59 Muhammad Shuja governed Bengal. Shah Jahan
1641 Dutch conquered Melaka. Malaya
1642 Tasman explored and named New Zealand.
1642-49 Sriranga III was last king of Vijayanagara. Southern India
1645-77 Amangkurat I ruled Mataram in Java.
1646 Murad's Mughal army occupied Balkh. Shah Jahan
1648-87 Hien Vuong ruled Annam. Vietnam
1651 English built a factory at Hughli. European Trade
1653 5th Dalai Lama visited Chinese emperor. Tibet
1653-58 Aurangzeb was viceroy in the Deccan. Shah Jahan
1653-78 Maetsuycker governed from Batavia. Java
1656-58 Dutch pushed Portuguese out of Sri Lanka. Southern India
1657 Shah Jahan's illness led to civil war in India.
1657-88 Narai ruled Siam and tolerated Europeans.
1658-1707 Aurangzeb ruled the Mughal empire.
1659 Ramdas wrote his poem Dasabodha. Maharashtra Mystics
1660-63 Mir Jumla governed Bengal. Aurangzeb
1661 Bengal's Mir Jumla declared war on Assam. Aurangzeb
1661 Portuguese gave England's Charles II Bombay. European Trade
1664, 1670 Shivaji led raids on port of Surat. Southern India
1664-88 Shaista Khan governed Bengal. Aurangzeb
1665 Aurangzeb doubled customs duties for Hindus.
1665 Shivaji gave up 23 fortresses. Southern India
1666 Shivaji escaped from Aurangzeb's court at Agra. Southern India
1669 Aurangzeb ordered Hindu temples demolished.
1669 Gokla of Tilpat led Jat rebellion. Aurangzeb
1670 Dutch announced monopolies in Sri Lanka. Southern India
1672 Aurangzeb revoked grants to Hindus.
1674 Shivaji crowned himself Maratha king. Southern India
1675 Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded. Aurangzeb
1676 Tibetan troops forced Bhutanese out of Sikkim.
1679 Aurangzeb revived jiziya tax on non-Muslims. Southern India
1684 Mughal army of 80,000 besieged Bijapur. Aurangzeb
1686 English sacked Hughli. Aurangzeb
1687-1707 Vimala Dharma Suriya II ruled Kandy. Southern India
1688 Maratha Shambhaji was captured and killed. Southern India
1688-1700 Rajaram led Maratha rebellion. Aurangzeb, Southern India
1688-90 English traders fought Mughal navy. Aurangzeb
1695-1706 Aurangzeb fought Marathas in the Deccan.
1698 English began collecting taxes at Calcutta. European Trade
1698 Vietnamese began colonizing lower Cambodia.
1699 Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed a Sikh nation.
1699 Johor's Sultan Mahmud was killed. Malaya
1700-35 Sai-Ong-Hué ruled Vientiane. Laos
1701 Aurangzeb banned trade with Europeans.
1701-27 Quli Jafar Khan administered Bengal, Orissa. Mughal
1702 Maratha army of 50,000 looted Hyderabad. Southern India
1703-62 Shah Waliullah translated Qur'an into Persian. Marathas
1704 Mughal army defeated the Sikhs at Chamkaur.
1705-17 Lhazang Khan ruled Tibet.
1707-12 Bahadur Shah ruled Mughal empire.
1707-39 Narendrasimha ruled Sri Lanka.
1708 Sikh Guru Gobind Singh was murdered. Maratha Rise
1708-16 Banda Bahadur led Sikh revolt. Maratha Rise
1710-13 Maratha civil war ravaged southern India.
1713-19 Farrukh Siyar, Sayyid brothers ruled Mughals.
1713-47 Chao-Soi-Sisamout ruled Champassak. Laos
1716-42 Narbhupal Shah ruled the Gurkhas. Nepal
1717 Dzungar Mongols invaded Tibet.
1718-46 Cakraningrat IV ruled Madura, allied with VOC. Java
1719-48 Muhammad Shah was Mughal emperor.
1720-40 Peshwa Baji Rao led Marathas.
1721-48 'Ali Muhammad Rohilla ruled Rohilkhand. Mughal Decline
1722-39 Sa'adat Khan ruled Awadh. Mughal Decline
1727-76 Inta-Som ruled Luang Prabang. Laos
1728-47 Pholhanas governed Tibet.
1732-37 Jai Singh governed Malwa. Maratha Rise
1733-58 Boromokot ruled Siam.
1739 Persia's Nadir Shah sacked Delhi. Mughal Decline
1740-56 Alivardi ruled Bengal. Mughal Decline, French
1740-61 Peshwa Balaji Rao led Marathas. Marathas
1742-53 Dupleix governed Pondicherry. French
1742-74 Prithvi Narayan Shah ruled the Gurkhas. Nepal
1747-67 Afghan Abdali invaded India 8 times.
1748-54 Ahmad Shah was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1751 English led by Clive captured Arcot.
1754-59 Alamgir II was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1756 Siraj attacked Calcutta, captured Fort William. English
1757 English and Clive defeated Siraj at Plassey.
1758-60 Clive governed Bengal.
1760 Marathas defeated Nizam forces, captured Delhi.
1761 Afghans defeated Marathas at Panipat.
1761-82 Haidar 'Ali ruled Mysore. English
1764 English defeated Shuja's Awadh army at Buxar.
1765 Dutch conquered Kandy on Sri Lanka.
1765-67 Clive governed Bengal.
1767 British first contacted Tahitians.
1767 Burma of Hsinhpyushin destroyed Ayudhya. Siam
1767-78 Sikhs raided the Doab.
1767-82 Taksin organized and ruled Siam.
1768 Nizam 'Ali made a treaty with the English.
1769 Cook visited Tahiti and New Zealand.
1770 Ten million died in Bengal and Bihar famine. Hastings
1771-85 Warren Hastings governed Bengal.
1772-1833 Rammohun Roy was a social reformer.
1772-82 Najaf Khan commanded the Mughal army. North India
1773-1801 Nguyen Van brothers led Tay-son revolt. Vietnam
1774 Awadh's Shuja and English annexed Rohilkhand. North India
1775-89 Afghan Timur Shah invaded India 5 times. North India
1781 British defeated Mysore's Haidar. Hastings
1782-1809 Rama I ruled Siam.
1782-1819 Bodawhpaya ruled Burma.
1782-94 Mahadji Sindia was a chief Maratha. North India
1784 Pitt's India Act banned Company wars. Cornwallis
1785 Burma took over Arakan.
1786 Kedah ceded Penang to the English. Malaya
1786-93 Cornwallis governed British India.
1788 English began penal colony at Sydney. Australia
1788 Ghulam Qadir blinded Emperor Shah Alam II. North India
1788-92 Gurkhas fought Tibetans.
1788-1801 British transported 7,486 prisoners to Australia.
1788-1820 Pakubuwana IV reigned on Java. Netherlands East Indies
1788-1868 British transported 158,829 convicts to Australia.
1789 Slave trafficking in India was abolished. Cornwallis Reforms
1792 Chinese helped Tibetans defeat the Gurkhas.
1792-1810 Hamengkubuwana II ruled at Yogyakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1793 Baptist missionary Carey came to Calcutta. Cornwallis Reforms
1793-98 John Shore governed British India. Cornwallis Reforms
1794 Duane published Indian World. Cornwallis Reforms
1794-99 Afghan Shah Zaman invaded India 4 times. North India
1796 English occupied Dutch possessions in Sri Lanka.
1797-1803 Marathas fought civil war.
1797-1804 Burma fought a war with Siam.
1796-1835 Mangkunegara II ruled at Surakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1798-1805 Richard Wellesley governed British India.
1799 Ranjit Singh took over Lahore. North India
1800-03 Mahmud Mirza ruled Afghanistan. North India
1801 Nizam and Bhangi Sikhs submitted to Ranjit Singh.
1801.7 British East India Company (BEIC) took Karnatak.
1801.7 Jaswant Rao Holkar captured Ujjain. British
1801.11 Awadh ceded half its territory to BEIC. British
1801-19 Gia Long ruled united Vietnam.
1802 British proclaimed Ceylon a crown colony. Sri Lanka
1803.5 British restored Baji Rao in Puna.
1803.8 Arthur Wellesley captured Ahmadnagar. British
1803.8 General Lake captured Aligarh. North India
1803-05 British fought the Marathas.
1803-05 British fought the Kandyans. Ceylon
1803-08 Shah Shuja ruled Afghanistan. Marathas, North India
1803-09 Shuja-ul-Mulk ruled Afghanistan. British North India
1803-21 Sultan Ahmad ruled Kedah. Malaya
1804.4 R. Wellesley declared war on Jaswant Rao Holkar. British
1804.5.3 British killed 50 Aborigines.
1804 Jind and Thanesar went over to the British.
1804 8th Dalai Lama died. Tibet
1804 Johnston led rebellion by Irish convicts. Australia
1804.10 Holkar occupied Muttra and besieged Delhi. British
1805.2 Ranjit Singh called for a united Sikh state.
1805.4 British made a treaty with Jats of Bharatpur.
1805.4 Gaikwar of Baroda made a subsidiary treaty. British
1805 Ranjit Singh formed a Sikh confederation.
1805 Penang became a British presidency. Malaya
1805.7-10 Cornwallis governed British India for 3 months.
1805.11 Barlow made a treaty with Daulat Rao Sindia. British
1805.12 Barlow made a treaty with Jaswant Rao Holkar. British North India
1805-28 Chao-Anou ruled Vientiane. Laos
1806 Sepoys mutinied at Madras. Marathas
1806.7.10 Sepoys attacked Europeans at Madras. British
1806-08 Captain Bligh governed New South Wales. Australia
1806-35 Ang Chan II ruled Cambodia.
1807-11 Jaswant Rao Holkar was insane. British
1807-13 Minto governed British India.
1807-1915 Vietnam used civil service examinations. French
1808.10 Ranjit Singh sent Karam Singh to take Faridkot. North India
1808.12 Ranjit Singh suppressed riots in Amritsar, Lahore. North India
1808-11 Daendels governed Java for France. Netherlands East Indies
1809.4 Ranjit Singh and British made Treaty of Amritsar. Sikhs
1809 Ranjit Singh made a treaty with the British. Marathas
1809 British destroyed the Melaka fort. Malaya
1809-24 Rama II ruled Siam.
1810 British took over Ambona. Netherlands East Indies
1810-21 Macquarie governed New South Wales. Australia
1811 Ranjit Singh seized Bhimbar. Sikhs
1811 Rama II banned opium in Siam.
1811.9 British took over Java from the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1811-15 Chin Byan led rebel attacks on Arakan.British Expansion Burma
1811-16 Raffles governed and reformed Java. Netherlands East Indies
1811-47 Vietnam dominated Cambodia.
1812 Ranjit Singh seized Rajauri. Sikhs
1812-29 Pangeran Pakualam ruled at Yogyakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1813 Mohkam Chand defeated Fateh Khan at Attock. North India
1813 Burma seized Manipur. British Expansion
1813 Charter Act encouraged Christian missionaries. Mutiny
1813-23 Lord Hastings governed British India. North India
1814 Ranjit Singh’s Kashmir expedition failed. Sikhs
1814 British made a treaty with Persia.
1814 Rammohun Roy began a friendship society.
1814 Redfern reformed health conditions on ships. Australia
1814 New South Wales began 15 elementary schools. Australia
1814-17 British defeated Gurkhas and made a treaty. Nepal
1814-20 Munro reformed the Madras judicial system. British Expansion
1815 British helped end Kandyan monarchy. Ceylon
1815 Tambora’s eruption affected global climate. Netherlands East Indies
1815 Kendall wrote The New Zealander’s First Book. New Zealand
1816 British freed children of slaves in Ceylon.
1816 British gave Java back to the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1817.6 Baji Rao II signed the Treaty of Puna. British
1817.11.5 Daulat Rao Sindia signed the Treaty of Gwalior. British
1817.11.5 British defeated Baji Rao II, occupied Puna. British
1817.12 Malhar Rao Holkar II attacked British. British
1817-98 Sayyid Ahmad Khan worked for Muslims. Social Reform
1818.1 Holkar II signed subsidiary treaty. British
1818.6 Marathas surrendered to the British. British
1818 British defeated Pindari outlaws.
1818 Ranjit Singh's Sikh army conquered Multan.
1818 Buckingham began publishing Calcutta Journal. British Expansion
1818 Kamran murdered Fateh Khan. British Expansion
1818 Buckingham began publishing Calcutta Journal. British Expansion
1818 Burma gained sovereignty over Assam. British Expansion
1818 Portuguese traded muskets to Siam.
1818-31 Rammohun Roy led campaign to abolish sati.
1818-39 Dost Muhammad ruled Afghanistan. British Expansion
1819.4 Last Maratha fortress at Asirgarh surrendered.
1819 Ranjit Singh conquered Kashmir. British Expansion
1819 Calcutta Female Juvenile Society was founded. Reconstruction
1819 Raffles made Singapore a British port. Malaya
1819 Chao-Anou put down revolt in Champassak. Laos
1819 Australian Magazine began publishing. Australia
1819-41 Minh Mang ruled Vietnam.
1820 Bishop’s College was founded at Calcutta. British Expansion
1820 Maori chief Hongi visited London, got muskets.
1820-27 Thomas Munro governed Madras. British Expansion
1821 Azim Khan became ruler of Afghanistan. British Expansion
1821 Indians published their first newspaper. Social Reform
1821 Siamese army invaded Kedah. Malaya
1821-38 Dutch won the Padri War on Sumatra. Netherlands East Indies
1822 Rammohun Roy began editing a Persian weekly.
1822-32 Maoris fought civil wars.
1823.3 Ranjit Singh’s Sikhs defeated Azim Khan. British Expansion
1823 John Adam imposed censorship in Bengal. British Expansion Social Reform
1823 Sanskrit College was founded. British Expansion Social Reform
1823 Burma seized Manipur.
1823.11 British recaptured Shahpuri from Burma.
1823-26 Barakzai brothers fought over Afghanistan. British Expansion
1824.1 British defeated Burmese force from Assam.
1824.5 General Campbell occupied Rangoon. British Expansion
1824 Dutch ceded their part of Bengal to England. British Expansion
1824 Dutch-British treaty divided SE Asia archipelago. Malaya
1824 Wentworth began the Australian newspaper. Australia
1824-26 British invaded Burma, made treaty.
1824-31 Barnes governed Ceylon.
1824-36 George Arthur governed Van Diemen’s Land. Australia
1824-51 Nangklao (Rama III) ruled Siam.
1825.1 British occupied the Arakan capital.
1825 Vientiane’s Chao-Anou attacked Bangkok. Laos
1825.12 British captured Bharatpur, killing 8,000.
1825-30 200,000 died in Javanese rebellion. Netherlands East Indies
1825-31 Ralph Darling governed New South Wales. Australia
1826 Dost Muhammad seized Kabul, Ghazni, Jalalabad. British Expansion
1826 British paid Persia to annul 1814 treaty. British Expansion
1826 British annexed western Assam. Bentinck's Reforms
1826 British combined Malayan Straits Settlements.
1826 Siam made trade treaty with the British.
1827 Elphinstone revised Bombay judicial system. British Expansion
1827-29 Siam punished Laos for Chao Anu’s invasion.
1828 Siam conquered Vientiane. Laos
1828.8.20 Rammohun Roy founded Brahmo Sabha.
1828-35 Bentinck governed British India.
1829 Bentinck made helping sati a crime. Social Reform
1829-31 Sayyid Ahmad of Bareilly led a revolt. Bentinck's Reforms
1829-43 Orientalist Hodgson was resident in Nepal.
1830 British annexed Cachar. Bentinck's Reforms
1830 Van den Bosch began cultivation system in Java. Netherlands East Indies
1830 John Williams began converting Samoans.
1830-31 Revolts broke out in Vizagapatam.
1831-33 Rammohun Roy visited England, argued for reform.
1831-37 Richard Bourke governed New South Wales. Australia
1832 Sikhs defeated Afghans above Attock. Bentinck's Reforms
1832 South Australia began without convicts.
1832-34 Bodin led Siam’s army, occupied Phnom Penh. Cambodia
1833 British annexed Upper Assam. Bentinck's Reforms
1833 Ceylon adopted Colebrooke-Cameron reforms.
1833 Te Atua Wera founded a Maori Jewish religion.
1833.9.27 Rammohun Roy died at Bristol.
1834.5 Sikhs led by Hari Singh seized Peshawar. Sind
1834 Shah Shuja's siege of Qandahar failed. Bentinck's Reforms
1834 Vietnamese defeated Siam and Laos.
1835 Macaulay wrote "Minute on Education." Bentinck's Reforms
1835 Maori tribes were united. New Zealand
1835.10 Maori tribes were united.
1835-41 Vietnamese occupied Cambodia.
1837 Dost Muhammad’s army defeated Hari Singh. Afghanistan
1837 Ullathorne & J. D. Lang criticized homosexuality. Australia
1837 Australian Temperance Magazine began. Maconochie
1837-8 Persian army besieged Herat. Afghanistan
1838 Dwarkanath Tagore founded Landholders’ Society. Social Reform
1838 Maconochie published Australiana.
1838.7 Ranjit Singh, Shuja, and British made a treaty. Afghanistan
1838-46 George Gipps governed New South Wales. Australia
1838-48 Mrs. Chisholm helped women in Australia.
1838-70 Ali Alauddin Mansur Syah ruled Acheh. Netherlands East Indies
1839.4.25 Qandahar surrendered to British.
1839.6.27 Ranjit Singh died. Sind Sikhs
1839 British installed Shah Shuja in Kabul. Afghanistan
1839 Pratap Singh lost his throne at Satara. Bentinck's Reforms
1839 Ranjit Singh died. British Invasion
1839 Siam invaded Kedah.
1839 Wakefields began New Zealand Land Company.
1839.8.7 British installed Shah Shuja in Kabul.
1840.2.6 English and Maoris made Waitangi treaty.
1840.6-7 Baluchi tribes attacked Quetta. Afghanistan
1840 British resident withdrew from Burma. Dalhousie's Annexations
1840 New South Wales stopped taking convicts. Australia
1840 English and Maoris made Waitangi treaty. New Zealand
1840.11 Dost Muhammad surrendered to British.
1840-41 Balinese rajas made treaties with the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1840-44 Maconochie tried prison reforms.
1841.4 Jammu raja Gulab Singh took over Kashmir. Sikhs
1841.5.3 New Zealand became a British colony.
1841 Ladakh’s Zorawar Singh and Lala invaded Tibet.
1841.11 Afghans in Kabul attacked British.
1841.12 Macnaghten was treacherously killed by Akbar. Afghanistan
1841-44 Bodin’s Siamese army occupied Phnom Penh. Cambodia
1841-63 Brooke governed Sarawak for the British. Malaya
1842.1 British army leaving Kabul was massacred.
1842.2.28 Ellenborough replaced Auckland. British
1842.3 British in Ghazni citadel were massacred.
1842.4 Shah Shuja was murdered. Afghanistan
1842 Kashmir invaded Tibet and made a treaty.
1842 Mrs. Chisholm wrote Female Immigration. Australia
1842 New Zealand became a British colony.
1842.9 Pollock’s forces occupied Kabul. Afghanistan
1842.11 Sind made a treaty with the British.
1842-57 Samoans fought tribal wars.
1843.2 Napier’s force killed 5,000 Baluchis. Afghanistan
1843 New South Wales elected its legislative council. Australia
1843-47 Charles Napier governed annexed Sind.
1843-56 Devendranath Tagore led Brahmo Samaj. Social Reform
1843-63 Dost Muhammad ruled Afghanistan. Annexations India
1844.1 British took over Gwalior.
1844 Kolhapur revolted against British. Revolt
1844 British abolished slavery in Ceylon.
1844-48 Hardinge governed British India. Punjab
1845-49 Bali fought against the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1845-53 George Grey governed New Zealand.
1846 British defeated Sikhs in the Punjab.
1846 Khonds revolted against British. Revolt
1846 Siam garrisoned Champassak. Laos
1846-53 Pagan Min ruled Burma.
1846-77 Jung Bahadur governed Nepal.
1847 Balak Singh founded the religious Kukas. India
1847-60 Ang Duong ruled Cambodia.
1847-83 Tu Duc ruled Vietnam. French
1848.4 Dalhousie annexed Satara.
1848 Tu Duc decreed death for missionaries. Vietnam
1848-56 Dalhousie governed British India.
1849.1.3 Chatar Singh’s troops captured Attock. Dalhousie
1849.1.22 Mulraj surrendered to the British. Dalhousie
1849.3.12 British defeated Sikhs and annexed Punjab. Dalhousie
1849 British defeated Sikhs and annexed Punjab.
1849 Dalhousie annexed Sambalpur.
1849 Guangxi famine stimulated revolt. Taiping Revolution
1849-56 British suppressed Pathans’ raids. Dalhousie
1850.4 Lang and Parkes began the Australian League. Australia
1850 Religious Disabilities Act banned discrimination. Mutiny
1850 Nepal’s Jang Bahadur visited England.
1850 Maconochie wrote The Principles of Punishment.
1850 Victoria became a province of Australia. Penal Reforms
1850 Wentworth founded the University of Sydney. Australia
1850-52 Lawrence brothers governed Punjab. Dalhousie
1850-86 Chandrakirtti ruled Manipur. India
1851 Gold rush began in Australia.
1851-68 King Mongkut began modernizing Siam.
1852 Bombay adopted Sind’s police system.
1852 British conquered lower Burma. Annexations
1853 Dalhousie annexed Nagpur and Jhansi.
1853 Siam attacked Burma.
1853-78 Mindon Min ruled Burma.
1854 British made Hindu College the Presidency College. Reforms
1854 Miners protested at the Eureka Stockade. Australia
1854 Catherine Spence wrote Clara Morison. Australia
1854-56 Nepal and Tibet fought and made a treaty.
1855 Unions in Melbourne demanded the 8-hour day. Australia
1855-56 Siam made treaties with England, France and US.
1855-57 Santals revolted. Revolt
1856.1 Dalhousie annexed Awadh (Oudh).
1856 Widow Remarriage Bill passed. Mutiny
1856 New Zealand became a self-governing colony.
1856-62 Canning governed British India. Mutiny
1857.5.2 Henry Lawrence stopped mutiny in Awadh. Mutiny
1857.5.10 Sepoys mutinied at Mirat and Delhi. Mutiny
1857.5.14 Governor-General Canning learned of mutiny.
1857.5.17 Bahadur Shah II was deposed at Delhi. Mutiny
1857.5.31 Henry Lawrence stopped mutiny in Lakhnau.
1857.5.31 Mutineers took over Rohilkhand. Mutiny
1857.6.5 Sepoys in Benares fired on Europeans. Mutiny
1857.6.11 Military police joined Awadh mutiny.
1857.6.11 Col. Neill suppressed mutiny harshly in Allahabad.
1857.6.26 Nana Sahib led Kanpur rebellion. Mutiny
1857 Calcutta, Bombay, Madras universities founded. Dalhousie
1857.7.3 Henry Lawrence was besieged and killed. Mutiny
1857.7 Gurkhas defeated rebels in Azamgarh & Jaunpur. Mutiny
1857.7.16 Havelock defeated Nana’s troops. Mutiny
1857.8 34,000 Punjabi troops helped the British. Mutiny
1857.9.20 British stormed Red Fort; Bahadur surrendered. Mutiny
1857.9-11 Ahmad Khan led an uprising in Multan. Mutiny
1857-58 Mutiny became revolt in Awadh, Rohilkhand.
1858.3.21 British reoccupied Lakhnau. Mutiny
1858.4.4 British killed 5,000 at Jhansi; Rani escaped. Mutiny
1858.5.5 British defeated rebellion in Rohilkhand. Mutiny
1858.6 Canning controlled the press in Calcutta. Mutiny
1858 Australia gained male suffrage.
1858.8 British East India Company rule ended in India. Mutiny
1858.11.1 British pardoned most rebels. Mutiny
1858.11.1 Victoria proclaimed equal rights for India. Mutiny
1859 Kingsley wrote Recollections of Geoffrey Hamlyn. Australia
1859 Deniehy began publishing the Southern Cross. Australia
1859-84 Keshab Sen led Brahmo Samaj. India
1860.3 Ii Naosuke was assassinated in Edo. Japan
1860 13 million got famine relief in northwest India.
1860 Dekker published the novel Max Havelaar. Netherlands East Indies
1860 Gold rush began in New Zealand.
1860-65 Canning imposed an income tax. India
1860-72 British weapons crushed Maori uprisings.
1861 Police forces established throughout India.
1861 Indians were allowed on legislative councils. India
1861 Keshab Sen founded Indian Mirror. India
1862 Ahmad Khan wrote a commentary on the Bible. India
1862 Vietnam ceded three provinces to France.
1862 New Zealand legalized private sale of Maori land.
1862, 1867 British made trade treaties with Burma.
1862-63 Elgin was viceroy, recalled agent from Kabul. India
1863 Ramakrishna had a vision of Krishna.
1863-68 Afghanistan suffered war over succession. India
1864 Cambodia made a treaty with France.
1864-69 John Lawrence governed British India.
1864-1904 King Norodom ruled Cambodia.
1865 Nearly a million died in Orissa famine. India
1865 Devendranath Tagore founded the National Paper. India
1865.11 Bhutan ceded territory to British. India
1865-87 Bankim Chandra Chatterji wrote novels.
1866 Devendranath founded Adi Brahmo Samaj. India
1866 Ahmad Khan began Aligarh Institute Gazette. India
1866 Burma’s Mindon defeated rebellion by his sons.
1867 Burma made trade treaty with the British.
1867 Vietnam and Siam divided Cambodia.
1867 France occupied three more Vietnam provinces.
1868 Muir changed famine relief policy. India
1868 Punjab and Awadh got tenant rights. India
1868 Sher Ali regained Kabul and Qandahar. India
1868 Russians occupied Samarkand. India
1868 4 Maoris were elected to Parliament.
1868-1910 Chulalongkorn ruled and reformed Siam.
1868-1917 Charles Brooke ruled Sarawak. Malaya
1869 Lahore University was founded. Dalhousie
1869 Suez Canal opened. India Netherlands East Indies Australia
1869-72 Viceroy Mayo governed British India.
1870 Telegraph lines connected London to British India.
1870 Telegraph lines connected London to Australia.
1870-72 Clarke published His Natural Life. Australia
1871 Victoria Institution for Women began in Bengal. India
1871 Burma’s Mindon convened 5th Buddhist council.
1871 Reformer Nguyen Truong To died. Vietnam
1871 Dutch gained control over Sumatra. Netherlands East Indies
1871 University of New Zealand began at Otago.
1871.7 Kukas murdered Muslim butchers in Amritsar. India
1871.9 Wahhabis were sentenced to life for treason. India
1871.9.20 A Wahhabi assassinated Chief Justice Norman. India
1872.1 Kukas attacked 2 towns; 50 were executed. India
1872.2.8 A Pathan assassinated Viceroy Mayo. India
1872 India census recorded 206,160,000 people. India
1872 Native Marriage Act passed in India.
1872 Bankim founded Bangadarshan.
1872 Burma made trade treaties with France and Italy.
1872 Victoria implemented free public schools. Australia
1872-76 Northbrook governed British India.
1873 Debt evictions provoked Deccan riots. India
1873 French troops attacked Hanoi.
1873 Maori land was divided by individuals. New Zealand
1873-74 Dutch invaded and annexed Acheh. Netherlands East Indies
1874.1 Pangkor Treaty affected Chinese in Malaya.
1874 Bihar famine was prevented by rice shipments. India
1874 Hindu Patriot favored democratic home rule. India
1874 Vietnam’s Tu Duc made a treaty with France.
1874 Many Australians had the 8-hour day.
1875.6 Ahmad Khan founded a Muslim college. India
1875 Keshab Chandra Sen met Ramakrishna. India
1875 Dayananda Saraswati founded Arya Samaj. India
1875 Pearson wrote The Higher Culture of Women. Australia
1875.9.7 Theosophical Society was founded in New York.
1875.11.2 Resident Birch was killed in Perak over taxes. Malaya
1876 Banerjea founded Indian Association of Calcutta.
1876 Chinese agreed to let British explore Tibet.
1877.1.1 Queen Victoria became sovereign over India. Afghan War
1877 5.5 million people died in a famine in India. Afghan War
11877 Blavatsky published Isis Unveiled.
1877 Ahmad Khan founded Islamic college in Aligarh. Indian
1877 Australia restricted Chinese immigration.
1877-89 Hugh Low governed Perak well. Malaya
1878 India’s government gained a monopoly on salt. Afghan War
1878.7 Russian troops went to Kabul. Afghan War
1878.11 British invaded Afghanistan. Afghan War
1878.12 Sher Ali fled Kabul for Russian Turkestan. Afghan War
1878-81 British fought their second Afghan War.
1878-81 Maoris nonviolently resisted land confiscation. New Zealand
1879.2-7 Wasudeo led rebellion in Bombay. Afghan War
1879.5.26 Yakub and Cavagnari signed a treaty. Afghan War
1879 Gribble published “A Plea for the Aborigines.” Australia
1879.9.3 200 British were murdered in Kabul. Afghan War
1879-82 Le Myre de Vilers governed Cochinchina. Vietnam
1879-85 Thibaw ruled Burma.
1880.5 Blavatsky and Olcott visited Ceylon.
1880 Famine Commission made recommendations.
1880.7.22 Abdur Rahman became Amir of Kabul. Afghan War
1880.7.27 Ayub Khan defeated British at Maiwand. Afghan War
1880.8 British defeated Ayub Khan near Qandahar. Afghan War
1880.11.11 Bushranger Ned Kelly was hanged for murders. Australia
1880-84 Viceroy Ripon governed British India liberally.
1880-1901 Abdur Rahman ruled Afghanistan. India
1881 Bankim Chandra wrote the novel Anandamath.
1881 Vivekananda met Ramakrishna.
1881 Cambodia’s Norodom abolished tax on French.
1881 New Zealand restricted Chinese immigration.
1882.2 Thibaw abolished Burma’s monopolies. India
1882 Sirhind Canal was completed. India
1882 Dayananda founded Cow Protection Association. India
1882 Adyar became Theosophist headquarters.
1882 New Zealand began transporting frozen meat.
1882-85 Vietnamese and Chinese fought the French.
1883 Resident Low abolished debt slavery in Perak. Malaya
1883 Queensland annexed part of Papua New Guinea. Australia
1883.8 Vietnam became a French protectorate.
1884.6.6 Treaty let French occupy Annam.
1884.6 Cambodia gave France a protectorate.
1884 Russians occupied Merv. India
1884 James Pope published Health for the Maori. New Zealand
1885.1.18 Burma made a secret treaty with France. India
1885 British mission went to Sikkim. Tibet
1885.7 Vietnamese rebellion against French began.
1885.11.28 British took over Mandalay. India Burma
1885.12.28 First Indian National Congress met in Bombay.
1885-87 Si Votha led Cambodian rebellion against French.
1885-96 French fought Vietnamese insurgents.
1885-1901 Bir Shamsher ruled Nepal.
1886.1 British India annexed Upper Burma.
1886 Muslim Educational Congress began.
1886 Tibetans occupied Sikkim.
1886 Burmah Oil Company was founded. Burma
1886 French Indochina annexed Cambodia.
1886 Spence founded the Australian Shearers’ Union.
1886 Woman’s Suffrage League began in Australia.
1886.8.6 Ramakrishna died of cancer.
1886-90 British forces suppressed rebellion in Burma.
1887 Ranade began Indian National Social Conference. India
1887 Prince Devawongse suggested reforms in Siam.
1887 French formed the Indochinese Union. Vietnam
1887.7.4 Monthly Republican began in Sydney. Australia
1887.8 Australian Socialist League formed in Sydney.
1887.11 William Lane began editing Boomerang. Australia
1888.3 British drove Tibetans out of Sikkim.
1888.5 Louisa Lawson began publishing Dawn. Australia
1888 Bankim Chandra wrote Dharmatattva.
1888 Blavatsky published The Secret Doctrine.
1888-94 Viceroy Lansdowne governed British India.
1889 Besant reviewed The Secret Doctrine.
1889 Burma Village Act applied headman system.
1890 British agreed with Chinese on Tibet and Sikkim.
1890 Henry George visited Australia.
1890 Melbourne installed electric street lighting. Australia
1891 British forces intervened in Manipur. India
1891 Age of Consent Act prohibited child marriage. Indian
1891 Malaya made smallpox vaccination compulsory.
1891 Australian banks began to fail.
1891-96 Reeves reformed New Zealand labor laws.
1891-1911 Liberals dominated New Zealand politics.
1892 Ceylon abolished grain taxes.
1893 Riots occurred in Bombay, Bihar, and Assam. India
1893 Tibet blocked trade between China and India.
1893.7 French forced Siam to cede part of Laos.
1893.9 Vivekananda spoke at Chicago Exposition.
1893.9.19 New Zealand enacted woman suffrage.
1893-1906 Seddon led New Zealand’s Liberal government.
1894 Spence led Australian Workers’ Union (AWU).
1894 South Australia gave women the vote.
1894-99 Victor Bruce was viceroy of British India.
1894-1906 New Zealand Arbitration Court prevented strikes.
1895 Vivekananda visited Max Muller.
1895 Tilak began annual Shivaji festival. Indian
1895 British reinstated Thuthop Namgyal in Sikkim. Tibet
1895.8.24 Birsa and Mundas were imprisoned. India
1895-1903 Australia suffered a drought.
1895-1910 Laos revolted against the French.
1895-1933 13th Dalai Lama governed Tibet. 1905-33
1896 Chakla and Chinese invaded eastern Tibet.
1896.7.1 British formed Federated Malay States.
1896-98 Bubonic plague took 193,000 lives in India.
1896-99 More than six million died in famines in India.
1896-1902 Paul Doumer governed French Indochina.
1897.5.5 Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission.
1897 Ross discovered mosquitoes transmit malaria. Malaya
1898 Besant founded Central Hindu College (CHC).
1898 New Zealand enacted a pension system.
1898.9.6 Public pressure released Tilak from prison. Indian
1899.1.7 Mundas led by Birsa attacked the Khunti police. India
1899 Confucian Kang Youwei came to Singapore. Malaya
1899 New Zealand Farmers’ Union began.
1899-1905 Viceroy Curzon governed India.
1900.6.20 Australians approved a new constitution.
1900 India sent 8,000 British troops to Boer War. Curzon
1900 Samin began protest movement in Central Java. Indonesia
1900 Couperus wrote The Hidden Force. Indonesia
1900 Australian Woman’s Sphere began.
1900-02 Central Java suffered a famine. Indonesia
1901.1.1 Australia became a commonwealth.
1901 Dutch began Ethical Policy in Java.
1901 Franklin published her novel My Brilliant Career. Australia
1901 New Zealand annexed the Cook Islands.
1901-29 Chandra Shamsher governed Nepal .
1902.2.22 Morant and Handcock were executed. Australia
1902 Australia gave women the vote. Australia
1902.8 Siamese army defeated the Shans rebellion.
1903 Furphy published his novel Such Is Life. Australia
1903-04 British troops invaded Tibet. Curzon
1903-36 Premchand wrote realistic fiction.
1904.4 British defeated Tibetans at Gyantse.
1904 Besant published A Study in Consciousness.
1904.9.7 British and Tibetans signed a treaty.
1904-09 13th Dalai Lama was in exile. Tibet
1904-59 Sisavangvong was king of Luang Prabang. Laos
1905 Gokhale founded Servants of India Society.
1905.10.16 Curzon partitioned Bengal, and boycott began.
1905-08 Phan Boi Chau wrote on Vietnam’s history.
1905-10 Viceroy Minto and Morley offered reforms. British
1906.3 National Council of Education began in Calcutta. India
1906 Young Men’s Buddhist Association began. Burma
1906.10.1 Viceroy Minto gave Muslims concessions. India
1906.12.30 All-India Muslim League was founded.
1906-27 French let Sisowath be king of Cambodia.
1907.4 Aurobindo wrote “Passive Resistance.” India
1907.5.11 British issued Seditions Meetings Act.
1907.5 Phan Chu Trinh opened the Free School in Hanoi. Vietnam
1907 Braddon proved brown rice has more vitamins. Malaya
1907 Siam ceded Khmer provinces to Indochina.
1907 Beau founded University of Hanoi. Vietnam
1907 Australia set a minimum wage.
1907.12 French closed Free School, arrested teachers. Vietnam
1907-33 Besant was Theosophical Society president.
1908.1 Aurobindo spoke on spiritual nationalism. British Repression
1908.2 Sandhya printer was sentenced to 2 years. British Repression
1908.4 French arrested Vietnamese nationalists.
1908.4 Moderates met separately to change INC. British Repression
1908.5.2 Aligarh Conspiracy arrests were made. British Repression
1908.5.20 Indonesian students began Budi Utomo.
1908.6.8 Explosive Substances Act passed. British Repression
1908 Chinese opened a military college in Lhasa. Tibet
1908 Siam adapted the Code Napoleon.
1908.9 Klobukowski closed University of Hanoi. Vietnam
1908-14 Tilak was in prison for seditious writings. British Repression
1909.1 Anushilan Samiti was outlawed. British Repression
1909.3 Siam withdrew from Unfederated Malay States.
1909 Gandhi wrote Hind Swaraj (Indian Self-Rule). British Repression
1909 Krishnamurti wrote At the Feet of the Master.
1909 Siam ceded Malay states to British Malaya.
1909.9.17 Indonesian educator Kartini died.
1910.3 Chinese army occupied Lhasa; Dalai Lama fled. Tibet
1910.4 Australia’s Labor party won the election.
1910 Indian Press Act required security deposit. British Repression
1910-16 Viceroy Hardinge governed British India.
1910-25 King Vajiravudh ruled Siam.
1910-55 Aurobindo lived in Pondicherry ashram. British Repression
1911 Kartini’s writings were published. Indonesia
1911.12.11 George V ended the Bengal partition. India
1912.1 Besant began publishing Herald of the Star.
1912.2.9 20,000 workers went on strike in Brisbane. Australia
1912.3 British cancelled the partition of Bengal. India
1912.3.1 Coup attempt by officers in Siam failed.
1912.6 13th Dalai Lama returned to Tibet.
1912 Sarekat Islam (SI) began appealing to masses. Indonesia
1912.9 E. D. Dekker founded the Indies Party. Indonesia
1912-25 Massey led New Zealand’s government.
1912-26 Ministers governed during Japan’s Taisho Era. Japan
1913.1 Tibet and Mongolia declared independence.
1913.3 Muslim League adopted INC goal of self-rule. India
1913 Defence of India Act broke Criminal Procedures.
1913 Tagore won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1913.11 Lala Hardayal founded Yugantar Ashram. India
1913.12.23 Viceroy Hardinge was wounded by a bomb. India
1914.1.2 Besant began publishing Commonweal.
1914 Nepal recruited 200,000 men for the war.
1914.7.3 British and Tibet signed Simla agreement.
1914.7.14 Besant began publishing New India in Madras. India
1914.8 Siam declared neutrality.
1914.8 New Zealand took over Western Samoa.
1914.8.15 Aurobindo began publishing Arya.
1914-18 India sent 1,215,338 men to war overseas.
1915.2 Muslim soldiers mutinied in Singapore. Malaya
1915.5 Gandhi founded Satyagraha Ashram.
1915 Tilak began Indian Home Rule League.
1915 Iqbal wrote The Secrets of the Self.
1915 Katherine Prichard wrote The Pioneers. Australia
1915-23 Hughes was Australia’s prime minister. Australia
1916.2.6 CHC became Benares Hindu University. Gandhi
1916 Tagore lectured in Japan and the United States.
1916 British imposed embargo on arms to Tibet.
1916 Chulalongkorn University was founded. Siam
1916 Dutch PID began spying on Indonesians.
1916.9 Besant began another Home Rule League. India
1916.10.28 Australians vote against conscription.
1916.12 INC and Muslim League united on reforms. India
1916-21 Viceroy Chelmsford governed British India.
1917.2 Telegram revealed Germany-Japan-Mexico plot.
1917.4 Gandhi helped Champaran indigo workers.
1917.5 Besant led Women’s Indian Association. India
1917.6.15 Besant and 2 others were interned for 94 days. India
1917.7 Gandhi got British to abolish indentured labor.
1917.7.22 Siam declared war on Germany.
1917.8 Madras committee approved passive resistance. India
1917-19 Sarraut governed Vietnam, improved education.
1917-67 New Zealand bars closed at 6 p.m.
1918.2 Gandhi helped textile workers in Ahmadabad.
1918.4 Sedition Committee submitted Rowlatt report. Gandhi
1918 Gandhi helped suffering peasants in Kaira.
1918 Iqbal wrote The Mysteries of Selflessness.
1918 Influenza killed two million Indonesians.
1918.7 Viceroy Chelmsford and Montague issued report. India
1918.8.19 Tibet, China, and British signed a treaty.
1918-21 Hmong rebelled against the French in Laos.
1919.2 Jinnah resigned from the Rowlatt Committee. Gandhi
1919.3 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act passed. Gandhi
1919.3.30 Satyagraha Sabha began general strike in Delhi. Gandhi
1919.4.6 General strike began in India. Gandhi
1919.4.13 Amritsar massacre killed 379, wounded 1,137. Gandhi
1919.4.15 Martial law began in Amritsar. Gandhi
1919.4.18 Gandhi suspended the nonviolent campaign. Gandhi
1919.5-8 Afghan Amanullah led rebellion against British. Gandhi
1919 Aurobindo published Ideal of Human Unity.
1919 Gandhi edited Young India and Navajivan.
1919 Ceylon National Congress was founded.
1919 YMBA sponsored mass meetings in Burma.
1919 Ngo Van Chieu founded Cao Dai religion. Vietnam
1919 Semaun wrote A Story of Kadirun. Indonesia
1919.9 New Zealand veterans marched on Parliament.
1919.11 All-India Khilafat Conference met at Delhi. Gandhi
1919.12 Government of India Act passed. Gandhi
1919.12 Nationalists won Australia’s elections.
1920.3.10 Gandhi planned a non-cooperation campaign.
1920.5.28 Khilafat committee adopted non-cooperation. Gandhi
1920 Aurobindo published War & Self-Determination.
1920 Joshi began All-India Trade Union Congress.
1920 Siam improved its treaty with the United States.
1920.8.1 Khilafat non-cooperation began. Tilak died. Gandhi
1920.9.4 INC adopted non-cooperation for independence. Gandhi
1920.10 Australian Communist Party began.
1920.11 Elections for Legislative Councils were held. Gandhi
1920.11.17 A crowd of 20,000 caused a riot in Bombay. Gandhi
1920.12 25,000 people were arrested in Calcutta. Gandhi
1921.1 British implemented dyarchy reforms in India. Gandhi
1921.1 Lawyers in India went on strike. Gandhi
1921 Rangoon University students were on strike. Burma
1921 GCBA began demanding home rule for Burma.
1921 Frank Anstey published Money Power. Australia
1921.7 Khilafat Conference adopted non-cooperation. Gandhi
1921.9.14 Ali brothers were arrested and got 2 years. Gandhi
1921.11 Afghanistan’s Amanullah & British signed treaty. Gandhi
1921.11.17 Prince of Wales visit caused riots in Bombay. Gandhi
1921.11.23 Gandhi cancelled planned protests in Bardoli.
1921.12.10 C. R. Das led by getting arrested. Gandhi
1921-25 Viceroy Reading governed British India. Gandhi
1922.2.1 Gandhi wrote to Viceroy that 87,000 were ready.
1922.2.5 A mob killed 22 police in Chauri Chaura. Gandhi
1922.3.10 British arrested Gandhi and gave him 6 years.
1922 Ceylon ended poll tax, formed a Labor Union.
1922 Sun Yat-sen founded Overseas Affairs Bureau. Malaya
1923.1 British began dyarchy government in Burma.
1923.5 Hindu-Muslim riots erupted in Calcutta. India
1923 Motilal Nehru founded the Swarajya party. India
1923 Bengal revolutionaries committed robberies. India
1923 Hindu Mahasabha reconverted 450,000 Muslims. India
1923 Iqbal wrote The Message of the East.
1923 Nepal and British signed a treaty of friendship.
1923 Phan Boi Chau wrote O Heaven, O God. Vietnam
1923-25 Governor Merlin cut education in Vietnam.
1924.2 British released Gandhi after appendicitis. India
1924.5 GCBA stopped paying taxes in Burma.
1924 Bhagavan Das finished Science of the Emotions.
1924 Tagore lectured in China.
1924 Jinnah revived the All-India Muslim League. India
1924.8 U Ottama got 3 years for sedition in Burma.
1924.9 Muslims killed 36 Hindus at Kohat. India
1925.6 Ho began Revolutionary Youth League. Vietnam
1925 Kandyan National Assembly was founded. Ceylon
1925 People’s Party won 45 seats in Burma.
1925.8 New Zealand began Radio Broadcasting Co.
1925.12 Swarajya members walked out of Councils. India
1925-26 Siam improved its treaties.
1925-27 Socialist Varenne governed Vietnam.
1925-32 King Prajadhipok ruled Siam. Siam
1925-33 Le Van Trung led Cao Dai religion. Vietnam
1925-40 Phan Boi Chau was under house arrest. Vietnam
1926.3 Phan Chu Trinh’s funeral lasted a week. Vietnam
1926.4 Hindu-Muslim riots killed 44 in Calcutta. India
1926 All-India Women’s Conference began. India
1926 Huynh began Voice of the People in Annam. Vietnam
1926 Indonesia imprisoned 4,500 Communists.
1926.12 A Muslim assassinated Swami Shraddhananda. India
1926.12 Spratt revived India’s Communist party. India
1926-31 Viceroy Irwin governed British India. Civil Disobedience
1927.2 Congress of Oppressed Nationalities met. India
1927.2 Pridi and Phibun founded the People’s Party. Siam
1927.3.24 Thousands of Vietnamese were imprisoned.
1927.5.9 Canberra became Australia’s capital.
1927 Goonesinha began Ceylon Trade Union Congress.
1927 Malaya ended immigration of Japanese women.
1927 Malay became the Indonesian language.
1927 Australian Council of Trade Unions began.
1927.7.4 Sukarno founded Nationalist party (PNI). Indonesia
1927.11 Simon Commission excluded Indians. India
1927.12 Vietnam National Party was founded in Tonkin.
1927, 1929 Gandhi published his Autobiography. India
1927-41 Sisowath Monivong was king of Cambodia.
1928.2 Simon Commission was met with protests. India
1928 Patel led a nonviolent campaign in Bardoli. India
1928 Strike closed Bombay textile mills. India
1928 Congress of Indonesian Women began.
1928 Sukarno and PPPKI demanded independence. Indonesia
1928.8 Conference accepted Nehru’s constitution. India
1928.8 Nehru began Independence for India League.
1928-34 Pasquier governed Vietnam for the rich.
1928-39 U Ottama was in prison until he died. Burma
1929.3.20 India government arrested 31 Communists.
1929.4.8 Revolutionaries bombed the Lahore Assembly. India
1929.5 Civil war led to Amanullah’s abdication. India
1929.5 Women’s News began in Saigon. Vietnam
1929 Krishnamurti disbanded the Order of the Star.
1929 500,000 workers were on strike in India.
1929 Trade Union Congress affiliated with Moscow. India
1929 Damkoeng wrote the novel Circus of Life. Siam
1929 Wichit wrote Universal History about Thais. Siam
1929 Tran Trong Kim published Confucianism. Vietnam
1929 Indonesian sugar industry collapsed.
1929 Australia abolished compulsory military service.
1929 Mao Dun published his novel Rainbow.
1929 Ba Jin published his novel Destruction.
1929.10 Labor party won Australia’s elections.
1929.12.29 Dutch imprisoned Sukarno and PNI leaders. Indonesia
1930.1.26 India declared its independence.
1930.3.2 Gandhi wrote letter warning Viceroy Irwin. India
1930.3.12 Gandhi began the salt march. India
1930.4.6 60,000 Indians were arrested for making salt.
1930.4.10 Gandhi asked women to picket. India
1930.4.18 Revolutionaries used force in Chittagong. India
1930.4.23 Abdul Ghaffar Khan led Peshawar protest. India
1930.4.27 British passed Emergency Ordinance. India
1930.5.4 British arrested Gandhi. India
1930.5 Many Indians died during a Rangoon strike. Burma
1930.6.7 Simon Commission Report was published. India
1930.6.12 Madeleine Slade reported police brutality. India
1930.6.17 French executed 439 Vietnamese without trials.
1930 Tagore published The Religion of Man.
1930 Chinese founded the Malayan Communist Party.
1930 Malaya closed brothels.
1930 Ho founded Indochinese Communist Party. Laos Vietnam
1930 Palmer wrote Men Are Human and The Passage. Australia
1930.9.12 French aerial bombing of Vinh killed 157 people. Vietnam
1930.11.12 Round Table Conference began in London. India
1930.12 Iqbal proposed a state for Indian Muslims. India
1931.1.19 MacDonald announced recommendations. India
1931.2.27 Police killed revolutionary Chandrasekhar. India
1931.3.5 Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed at Delhi. India
1931.3.23 166 died in Kanpur riot. India
1931.3.23 3 Lahore conspirators were executed. India
1931 Ceylon constitution gave women the vote.
1931 French soldiers crushed revolution in Vietnam.
1931.9-11 Gandhi conferred in London. India
1931.12 Nehru led no-rent campaign in United Provinces. India
1931.12 United Australia party won elections.
1931-32 Burman troops killed 3,000 rebels.
1931-36 Viceroy Willingdon governed British India.
1931-37 Burma divided over separation from India.
1931-47 Malaya restricted immigration.
1932.1.4 Gandhi was arrested, imprisoned without a trial. India
1932.6.24 Pridi’s People’s Party took over Siam.
1932 Das wrote The Essential Unity of All Religions.
1932 Iqbal wrote The Song of Eternity.
1932.9 Gandhi fasted for Harijans’ rights. India
1932.11.17 Congress boycotted London conference. India
1932-46 Juddha Shamsher ruled Nepal.
1933.5.8 Fasting Gandhi was released from prison. India
1933.6 Siam’s military rejected Pridi’s economic plan.
1933 Rahmat founded Pakistan National movement. India
1933 India, Ceylon, Indonesia limited tea exports.
1933.8 Gandhi was arrested, fasted, and was released. India
1933.10 People’s Party put down military coup in Siam.
1933.11 People’s Party won elections in Siam.
1933-38 Ho Chih Minh studied and taught in Moscow. Vietnam
1933-42 Sukarno was exiled. Indonesia
1934.5 All-India Congress cancelled civil disobedience.
1934 Communist party in India was banned.
1934 Tibetan ministers imprisoned Lungshan for life.
1934 Tibetan troops kept Chinese Communists away.
1934 Siam’s Press Act censored the press and radio.
1934-38 Nations restricted rubber production. Ceylon Malaya Indonesia
1934-38 John A. Lee wrote on labor and socialism. New Zealand
1934-39 Wichit wrote self-help books & patriotic plays. Siam
1935.3.2 Siam’s King Prajadhipok abdicated.
1935 Government of Burma Act passed.
1935 Trotskyists won Saigon council elections. Vietnam
1935 Australia imposed trade sanctions against Italy.
1935.8 England passed the Government of India Act.
1935-38 New Zealand’s Labour party made reforms.
1936 Aung San led student strike in Rangoon. Burma
1936 Nagara Vatta was first Khmer newspaper. Cambodia
1936-39 Liberal Jules Brevié governed Vietnam.
1936-43 Viceroy Linlithgow governed India. India during World War II
1937.3 AICC voted to accept offices. India
1937 Australia stopped selling iron to Japan.
1937.10 All-India National Education Conference met.
1937-44 Caldecott governed Ceylon under a constitution.
1938.2.18 Indian Congress elected Subhas Bose president.
1938 Leftists formed the Young Malaya Union.
1938.7.26 Rangoon mass meeting became a riot. Burma
1938.12.26 Phibun became prime minister of Siam.
1939.1.23 Burma arrested Thakin leaders.
1939.5 Huynh Phu So founded Hoa Hao religion. Vietnam
1939.6 Siam became Thailand.
1939 Shridharani published War Without Violence. India
1939 Freedom Bloc demanded an assembly in Burma.
1939 Vietnam’s army increased to 100,000.
1939 John Mulgan published his novel Man Alone. New Zealand
1939.8 Hindus and Muslims fought over Sukkur mosque. India
1939.9.3 Australia went to war against Germany.
1939.9 Indian Congress refused to support British war.
1939.9 Muslim League cooperated with British war. India
1939.9 Burma Revolutionary Party published program.
1939.9 GAPI demanded an Indonesian parliament.
1939.9.26 French outlawed Communists in Vietnam.
1939-41 Fitzpatrick wrote on British imperialism. Australia
1940.2.22 14th Dalai Lama was enthroned in Tibet.
1940.3 Muslim League favored independent states. India
1940.5.10 Dutch declared martial law in Indonesia.
1940 Bombay strike led to 480 Communist arrests. India
1940 Nehru published Toward Freedom. India
1940.7.2 British arrested Subhas Bose. India
1940.7.16 Government closed Burma Road to stop arms.
1940.10.17 Indian Congress began civil disobedience.
1940-45 Vichy French ruled Indochina. Cambodia Laos Vietnam
1941.1 Thailand invaded French Cambodia.
1941.1.17 Subhas Bose escaped and went to Moscow. India
1941.3. United States extended Lend-Lease to Australia.
1941.3.28 Subhas Bose met Ribbentrop in Berlin. India
1941.5.9 Tokyo treaty gave Laos land to Thailand. Vietnam
1941.5 Ho Chih Minh formed the Viet Minh. Vietnam
1941.5 Indian Congress had 14,000 in prison.
1941.6 Communist Party of India (CPI) backed the war.
1941 University of Batavia was founded. Indonesia
1941.7 Japan occupied most of Vietnam.
1941.8 Chinese imprisoned Ho Chih Minh for a year. Vietnam
1941.11.9 Japanese took over Indochinese businesses. Vietnam
1941.12.3 Viceroy Linlithgow released political prisoners. India
1941.12.8 Japan invaded Malaya.
1941.12.8 Japan invaded Thailand.
1941.12.9 Australia declared war on Japan.
1941.12 Japan invaded Burma.
1941.12 Japan invaded Cambodia.
1941.12.25 Japan invaded Borneo. Malaya Invaded
1941-45 Curtin led Australia’s Labor government.
1941-53 Norodom Sihanouk was king of Cambodia.
1942.1.10 Japan invaded Tarakan and Palembang. Indonesia
1942.1.25 Thailand declared war on the UK and US.
1942.2 British fought Japanese at Sittang River. Burma
1942.2.15 Japanese forces captured Singapore. Malaya Australia
1942.2.19 Japanese planes bombed Darwin. Australia
1942.3 Indian Independence League formed in Tokyo.
1942.3 Japanese invaded Java & interned Dutch. Indonesia Australia
1942.4.5 Japan's Navy bombed Colombo. Ceylon
1942.4.6 Japanese planes bombed India.
1942.6 British imposed martial law in Sind. India
1942 British suppressed the “Quit India” campaign.
1942 Indian National Army (INA) formed.
1942 University of Ceylon was founded.
1942.7.17 French arrested monk Hem Chieu in Cambodia.
1942.8.9 British arrested Gandhi, Azad, and others. India
1942.8 Military occupied Benares University. India
1942.8 Australians defeated Japanese at Milne Bay.
1942.12.20 Japanese planes raided Calcutta. India
1942-45 Ba Maw governed Burma with the Japanese.
1942-45 Sukarno, Hatta and Sjahrir helped Japanese. Indonesia
1942-46 Gandhi’s Harijan was banned. India
1943.6.13 Tojo promised Bose independence for India.
1943 Indian armed forces had 2 million men.
1943.7.4 Subhas Bose became leader of the INA. India
1943.8.1 Japan declared Burma independent.
1943.8 Japan ceded 4 Malay states to Thailand.
1943.8 Australian Labor Party won elections.
1943.9 Aung San named the Burma National Army.
1943.10.23 Azad Hind’s Bose declared war on Britain & US. India
1943-44 Japanese crushed Borneo uprisings. Malaya
1943-47 Viceroy Wavell governed British India. India Divided
1944.1 Ba Maw approved Azad Hind’s move to Rangoon. Burma
1944.1.21 Australia-New Zealand Pact was signed.
1944.3 Japanese army invaded Manipur. India
1944.5.5 British released Gandhi from prison. India
1944.5 INA with Japanese invaded India from Burma.
1944 Ho Chih Minh revived the Viet Minh. Vietnam
1944.7.24 Thai Assembly removed Phibun from power.
1944.10 Menzies formed the Liberal Party of Australia.
1944.11 British Blue-Print for Burma was published.
1944.12.22 Giap organized Vietnamese People’s Army.
1944-45 Lao Seri fought the Japanese. Laos
1944-45 2,400,000 died in Indonesian famine.
1945.2 Mountbatten sent weapons to Aung San. Burma
1945.3.8 Indian troops entered Mandalay.
1945.3.9 Japan took Indochina from the French. Cambodia Laos Vietnam
1945.3.13 Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia independent.
1945.3 Congress gained ministries in Assam and Sind. India
1945.3.27 Burma National Army attacked the Japanese.
1945.4 Jiang (Kai-shek) sent weapons to Tibet.
1945.4.29 British defeated Japanese at Pegu. Burma Invaded
1945.5.1 Allies invaded eastern Borneo. Indonesia
1945.5.5 British and Indian forces entered Rangoon. India Burma
1945.5.18 British army captured INA in Rangoon. India Burma
1945.5.25 AFPFL called for new Burma constitution.
1945.6.1 Sukarno spoke about five principles. Indonesia
1945.6.2 Mountbatten announced amnesty for Burmans.
1945.6.14 Viceroy Wavell proposed Executive Council. India
1945 1,300,000 died of hunger in Vietnam.
1945.8.11 Sukarno and Hatta met Terauchi in Saigon. Indonesia
1945.8.16 Viet Minh took over Hanoi. Vietnam
1945.8.17 Sukarno declared Indonesian independence.
1945.8.27 Phetxarat took Viang Chan from Japanese. Laos
1945.9.2 Ho Chih Minh declared the DRV independent. Vietnam
1945.9.5 Sukarno announced his cabinet. Indonesia
1945.9.6 British troops occupied southern Vietnam.
1945.9 British occupied Malaya.
1945.9.12 French returned to govern Cambodia.
1945.9.24 Nationalists organized general strike in Saigon. Vietnam
1945.10 Meeting in Rangoon voted for a Karen state. Burma
1945.10 French troops returned to southern Vietnam.
1945.10 Surabaya revolted against British occupation. Indonesia
1945.10.16 Dorman-Smith began governing Burma.
1945.10.20 Pathet Lao Assembly deposed Sisavangvong. Laos
1945.11.10 Sjahrir published “Our Struggle” on socialism. Indonesia
1945.11.14 Sukarno replaced his cabinet with Sjahrir. Indonesia
1945.12 Congress & Muslim League won Indian elections. India
1945-46 Chinese troops occupied northern Vietnam.
1945-49 Chifley led Australia’s Labor government.
1946.1.6 Viet Minh won elections. Vietnam
1946.1 Aung San called for land reform. Burma
1946.1 Pridi parties won Thailand’s election.
1946.1 Dutch reoccupied Jakarta. Indonesia
1946.1.15 Marxist Tan Malaka formed Popular Front (PP). Indonesia
1946.2 Bombay police killed looters during strikes. India
1946.3.2 National Assembly convened in Hanoi. Vietnam
1946.3.6 Viet Minh and French signed an agreement. Vietnam
1946.3.21 French defeated Lao Issara at Thakhaek. Laos
1946.4.1 British began Malayan Union.
1946.4.10 Jinnah and Muslim League demanded Pakistan. India
1946.4.24 French reoccupied Viang Chan. Laos
1946.5.16 Cabinet Mission proposed Union of India.
1946 United National Party formed in Ceylon.
1946 Australian National University began.
1946.7.6 Indian Congress elected Nehru president.
1946.7 Sukarno imprisoned Tan Malaka for 2 years. Indonesia
1946.8.16 Muslim League began direct action; 5,000 died. India
1946.8.23 North Korean Workers Party formed.
1946.8.27 Laos monarchy joined French Indochina.
1946.9.1 Democrats won Cambodian election.
1946.9 Gov’t. employees in Rangoon went on strike. Burma
1946.10 Gandhi went to Noakhali to stop violence. India
1946.10 Muslim League joined the Interim Government. India
1946.11.20 Fighting began in Haiphong. Vietnam
1946.12.9 Muslims boycotted Constituent Assembly. India
1946.12 Cambodia gave Issaraks amnesty.
1946.12 Dutch created state of Eastern Indonesia.
1946.12.19 French-Vietnam War began.
1947.3.23 Mountbatten became last viceroy of India.
1947.4 Aung San’s PVO won Burma elections.
1947.4 Ex-regent Rating’s coup attempt failed in Tibet.
1947.5 Mountbatten’s plan was approved. India
1947.6.10 Burma’s elected Assembly severed the British.
1947.6 Congress and Muslim League agreed to partition. India
1947 Australia began aiding European immigration.
1947 Australia gained the 40-hour week.
1947.7 Amir Sjarifuddin became Indonesian premier.
1947.7.19 Aung San and 8 other leaders were murdered. Burma
1947.7.21 Dutch began police action in Indonesia.
1947.8.4 Sukarno and Dutch agreed to a cease-fire. Indonesia
1947.8 Laos adopted constitution and held elections.
1947.8.11 Pakistan Assembly elected Jinnah president. India
1947.8.15 India and Pakistan became independent. India
1947.8.17 British began withdrawing troops from India.
1947.8.29 Punjab Boundary Force was abolished. India
1947.9.7 Riots broke out in Delhi. India
1947.9 Pridi founded the Southeast Asia League. Thailand Laos
1947.10.26 India sent troops to defend Kashmir.
1947.11.8 Thailand’s military put Phibun back in power.
1947.12.4 Nehru announced non-aligned foreign policy. India
1948.1.4 Burma became an independent nation.
1948.1 Amir accepted van Mook Line and resigned. Indonesia
1948.1.17 UN Security Council formed UNCIP for Kashmir. India
1948.1.30 Gandhi was assassinated in Delhi. India
1948.2.1 British began Federation of Malaya.
1948.2.4 Ceylon became independent Sri Lanka.
1948.2.18 Last British regiment left India. India
1948.3 Sheikh Abdullah became Kashmir prime minister. India
1948.3 Van Mook claimed federation presidency. Indonesian
1948.3.28 Communist uprising began in Burma.
1948.4.8 Phibun became prime minister of Thailand again.
1948.4.19 Burma entered the United Nations.
1948.7 Malaya outlawed and arrested Communists.
1948.8 PKI Communists killed 240 Muslim leaders. Indonesia
1948.8.18 PKI Communists took over Madiun. Indonesia
1948.11.13 KNU leaders proposed a Karen-Mon state. Burma
1948.12.18 Dutch began 2nd police action in Yogyakarta. Indonesia
1948.12.22 US stopped financial aid to Dutch Indonesia.
1948.12.31 Dutch complied with UN cease-fire. Indonesia
1948-50 Communists and Karens rebelled in Burma.
1948-57 Phibun was prime minister of Thailand.
1949.1 Karen rebellion began at Bassein and Toungoo. Burma
1949.2 Pridi’s coup attempt failed in Bangkok. Thailand
1949.3.7 Pakistan Assembly adopted objectives.
1949.6.14 Bao Dai was inaugurated in Saigon. Vietnam
1949.7 UNCIP established cease-fire line in Kashmir. India
1949.7 Tibet expelled Chinese officials from Lhasa.
11949.10 University of Malaya formed.
1949.11.26 India adopted a new constitution.
1949.12 Menzies won Australian election.
1949.12 National Party won New Zealand’s election.
1949.12.16 Sukarno was elected president of Indonesia.
1949.12.27 Republic of United States of Indonesia began.
1949-74 Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric project began. Australia
1950.1.18 Communist China recognized the DRV. Vietnam
1950.1.24 Rajendra Prasad was elected president of India.
1950.1.26 Hyderabad joined the Indian Union.
1950 US began aiding French Indochina. Cambodia Laos Vietnam
1950 West Pakistan had 8 million Muslim refugees.
1950.7 Thailand offered troops for the Korean War.
1950.8.17 Unitary Republic of Indonesia began.
1950.10.7 Chinese troops invaded Tibet.
1950.11.11 Tibet appealed Chinese aggression to UN.
1950.12 14th Dalai Lama fled from Lhasa. Tibet
1950.12 Menzies won Australian election.