BECK index


Medieval Europe 1250-1400

General and Miscellaneous
Crusaders and Byzantine Decline
Eastern Europe
Catholic Ethics 1250-1350
German Empire
Spain and Portugal
Italian City States
Dante and Marsilius
Petrarca and Bocaccio
Low Countries and Burgundy
England, Scotland and Ireland
Mystics, Wyclif, Gower and Chaucer

This book has been published as Medieval Europe 1250-1400.
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General and Miscellaneous

Abelson, J., Jewish Mysticism: An Introduction to the Kabbalah. New York, 1913.

Bartlett, Robert, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization, and Cultural Change 950-1350. Princeton, 1993.

Bawdy Tales from the Courts of Medieval Europe tr. Paul Brians. New York, 1972.

Bogin, Meg, The Women Troubadours. Scarborough, 1976.

Burgwinkle, William E., Love for Sale: Materialist Readings of the Troubadour Razo Corpus. New York, 1997.

Butler’s Lives of the Saints ed. Michael Walsh. San Francisco, 1985.

Cambridge Medieval History, The, Vol. 7: Decline of Empire and Papacy ed. J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte-Orton, and Z. N. Brooke. Cambridge, 1932.

Cambridge Medieval History, The, Vol. 8: The Close of the Middle Ages ed. C. W. Previté-Orton and Z. N. Brooke. Cambridge, 1936.

Cantor, Norman F., Inventing the Middle Ages. New York, 1991.

Cantor, Norman F., Medieval History: The Life and Death of a Civilization. New York, 1963.

Caron, M. and S. Hutin, The Alchemists tr. Helen R. Lane. New York, 1961.

Chambers, E. K., The Medieval Stage, 2 volumes. Mineola, 1903.

Cheyney, Edward P., The Dawn of a New Era 1250-1453. New York, 1936.

Cohn, Norman, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary messianism in medieval and Reformation Europe and its bearing on modern totalitarian movements. New York, 1961.

Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Volume 3 Mediaeval Philosophy, Part 2 The Revival of Platonism to Suarez. Garden City, 1946.

Durant, Will, The Age of Faith. New York, 1950.

Durant, Will, The Reformation: A History of European Civilization from Wyclif to Calvin: 1300-1564. New York, 1957.

Durant, Will, The Renaissance: A History of Civilization in Italy from 1304-1576 A.D. New York, 1953.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 30 volumes. Chicago, 1975.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 volumes ed. Paul Edwards. New York, 1967.

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, The ed. Norman F. Cantor. New York, 1999.

Encyclopedia of World History, An ed. William L. Langer. Boston, 1980.

Ferguson, Wallace K., Europe in Transition 1300-1520. Boston, 1962.

Flowering of the Middle Ages, The ed. Joan Evans. New York, 1966.

Gimpel, Jean, The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages. New York, 1976.

Goodrich, Norma Lorre, Medieval Myths. 1961.

Grabois, Aryeh, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Medieval Civilization. New York, 1980.

Graetz, Heinrich, History of the Jews, Volume 4. Philadelphia, 1894.

Hallam, Henry, View of the State of Europe During the Middle Ages. London, 1859.

High Middle Ages: 1000-1300, The ed. Bryce Lyon. New York, 1964.

History of Private Life, A, Volume 2: Revelations of the Medieval World ed. Georges Duby. Cambridge, 1988.

Hughes, Philip, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils 325-1870. Garden City, 1961.

Knowles, David, The Evolution of Medieval Thought. New York, 1962.

Leclercq, Jean, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God tr. Catharine Misrahi. New York, 1961.

Leon, Vicki, Uppity Women of Medieval Times. Berkeley, 1997.

Lerner, Robert E., The Feast of Saint Abraham: Medieval Millenarians and the Jews. Philadelphia, 2001.

Lopez, Robert S., The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages 950-1350. Englewood Cliffs, 1971.

Lyrics of the Troubadours and Trouveres: An Anthology and History tr. Frederick Goldin. Garden City, 1973.

Manchester, William, A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance. Boston, 1993.

Medieval Political Philosophy ed. Ralph Lerner and Muhsin Mahdi. Ithaca, 1963.

Medieval Romances ed. Roger Sherman Loomis and Laura Hibbard Loomis. New York, 1957.

Michelet, Jules, Satanism and Witchcraft: A Study in Medieval Superstition. Secaucus, 1939.

Middle Ages, The, Volume 1: Sources of Medieval History ed. Brian Tierney. New York, 1978.

Mollat, Michel and Philippe Wolff, The Popular Revolutions of the Late Middle Ages tr. A. L. Lytton-Sells. London, 1973.

New Cambridge Medieval History, The, Volume 5 c. 1198-c. 1300 ed. David Abulafia. Cambridge, 1999.

Pirenne, Henri, Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe tr. I. E. Clegg. New York, 1937.

Pirenne, Henri, A History of Europe from the Invasions to the XVI Century tr. Bernard Miall. New York, 1936.

Portable Medieval Reader, The ed. James Bruce Ross and Mary Martin McLaughlin. New York, 1949.

Power, Eileen, Medieval People. Garden City, 1956.

Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church, Volume V: From Gregory VII, 1049, to Boniface VIII, 1294. Grand Rapids, 1907.

Schaff, David S., History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. Grand Rapids, 1910.

Silences of the Middle Ages: A History of Women in the West, Volume 2 ed. Christiane Klapisch-Zuber. Cambridge, 1992.

Southern, R. W., The Making of the Middle Ages. New Haven, 1953.

Storey, R. L., Chronology of the Medieval World 800-1491. New York, 1973.

Tales of the Monks from the Gesta Romanorum ed. Manuel Komroff. New York, 1928.

Theatre of Medieval Europe, The: New Research in Early Drama ed. Eckehard Simon. Cambridge, 1991.

Thompson, James Westfall, Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages (1300-1530). New York, 1931.

Times Atlas of World History, The ed. Geoffrey Barraclough. Maplewood, 1984.

Trager, James, The People’s Chronology. New York, 1992.

Tuchman, Barabara W., A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York, 1978.

Waddell, Helen, The Wandering Scholars. Garden City, 1961.

Wisdom of Israel, The, ed. Lewis Browne. New York, 1945.

Crusaders and Byzantine Decline

Arab Historians of the Crusades tr. Francesco Gabrieli and E. J. Costello. Berkeley, 1969.

Cambridge Medieval History, The, Vol. 4: The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453) ed. J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte-Orton, and Z. N. Brooke. Cambridge, 1936.

History of the Crusades, A, Volume 2: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 ed. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. Madison, 1969.

History of the Crusades, A, Volume 5: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East ed. Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. Madison, 1985.

Lamb, Harold, The Crusades: The Flame of Islam. Garden City, 1931.

Lamb, Harold, The Crusades: Iron Men and Saints. Garden City, 1931.

Obolensky, Dimitri, The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. New York, 1971.

Ostrogorsky, George, History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, 1957.

Runciman, Steven, A History of the Crusades, 3 volumes. Cambridge, 1951.

Throop, Palmer A., Criticism of the Crusade. Philadelphia, 1940.

Vasiliev, A. A., History of the Byzantine Empire, 2 volumes. Madison, 1980.

Eastern Europe

Cambridge History of Poland from the Origins to Sobieski (to 1696), The ed. W. F. Reddaway. Cambridge, 1950.

Cambridge History of Russia, Volume 1: From Early Rus’ to 1689 ed. Maureen Perrie. Cambridge, 2006.

Chirovsky, Nicolas L. Fr., A History of the Russian Empire, Volume 1: Grand-ducal Vladimir and Moscow. New York, 1973.

Davies, Norman, God’s Playground: A History of Poland, Volume 1: The Origins to 1795. Nw York, 1982.

Engel, Pal, The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526 tr. Tamas Palosfalvi. London, 2001.

Evtuhov, Catherine et al, A History of Russia: Peoples, Legends, Events, Forces. Boston, 2004.

Fennell, J. L. I., The Emergence of Moscow 1304-1359. Berkeley, 1968.

History of Hungary, A ed. Peter F. Sugar. Bloomington 1990.

Knoll, Paul W., The Rise of the Polish Monarchy: Piast Poland in East Central Europe, 1320-1370. Chicago, 1972.

Lamb, Harold, Genghis Khan. New York, 1927.

Lutzov, Count von and H. A. Piehler, Bohemia: An Historical Sketch. London, 1939.

Medieval Russia’s Epics, Chronicles, and Tales tr. Serge A. Zenkovsky. New York, 1963.

Pares, Bernard, A History of Russia. New York, 1953.

Presniakov, A. E., The Formation of the Great Russian State: A Study of Russian History in the Thirteenth to Fifteenth Centuries tr. A. E. Moorhouse. Chicago, 1970.

Rambaud, Alfred, Russia, Volume 1. New York, 1900.

Readings in Russian History from Ancient Times to the Abolition of Serfdom ed. Sidney Harcave. New York, 1962.

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V., A History of Russia. New York, 1969.

Walsh, Warren Bartlett, Russia and the Soviet Union: A Modern History. Ann Arbor, 1958.

Zamoyski, Adam, The Polish Way: A Thousand-year History of the Poles and their Culture. New York, 1987.

Catholic Ethics 1250-1350

Age of Belief, The: The Medieval Philosophers ed. Anne Fremantle. New York, 1954.

Apocalyptic Spirituality tr. Bernard McGinn. New York, 1979.

Aquinas, The Pocket ed. Vernon J. Bourke. New York, 1960.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas, God’s Greatest Gifts tr. Joseph B. Collins. Manchester, 1992.

Aquinas, St. Thomas, On Kingship: To the King of Cyprus tr. Gerald B. Phelan. Toronto, 1949.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas, The Summa Contra Gentiles, the third book parts 1 and 2 tr. English Dominican Fathers from the Latest Leontine Edition. New York, 1928.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas, The Summa Theologica tr. Fathers of the English Dominican Province revised by Daniel J. Sullivan, 2 volumes. Chicago, 1952.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas, The Three Greatest Prayers tr. Laurence Shapcote. Manchester, 1990.

Apocalyptic Spirituality tr. Bernard McGinn. New York, 1979.

Bacon, Roger, Opus Majus, 2 volumes tr. Robert Belle Burke. Philadelphia, 1928.

Bonaventure, The Soul’s Journey Into God, The Tree of Life, The Life of St. Francis tr. Ewert Cousins. New York, 1978.

Brooke, Rosalind B., Early Franciscan Government: Elias to Bonaventure. Cambridge, 1959.

Burr, David, The Spiritual Franciscans: From Protest to Persecution in the Century After Saint Francis. University Park, 2001.

Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts, The, Vol. 2: Ethics and Political Philosophy ed. Arthur Stephen McGrade et al. Cambridge, 2001.

Christian Ethics ed. Waldo Beach and H. Richard Niebuhr. New York, 1955.

Copleston, F. C., Aquinas. Middlesex, 1955.

Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Volume 2 Mediaeval Philosophy, Part 1 Augustine to Bonaventure. Garden City, 1946.

Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Volume 2 Mediaeval Philosophy, Part 2 Albert the Great to Dun Scotus. Garden City, 1962.

Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Volume 3 Late Mediaeval and Renaissance Philosophy, Part 1 Ockham to the Speculative Mystics. Garden City, 1946.

De Benedictis, Matthew M., The Social Thought of Saint Bonaventure. Westport, 1946.

Duns Scotus on the Will and Morality tr. Allan B. Wolter. Washington, 1986.

Early Dominicans: Selected Writings ed. Simon Tugwell. New York, 1982.

Eckhart, Meister tr. Raymond Bernard Blakney. New York, 1941.

Eckhart, Meister, The Essential Sermons, Commentaries, Treatises, and Defense tr. Edmund Colledge and Bernard McGinn. New York, 1981.

Esser, Cajetan, Origins of the Franciscan Order tr. Aedan Daly and Irina Lynch. Chicago, 1970.

Farrell, Walter, A Companion to the Summa, volumes 2 and 4. New York, 1945.

Gilson, Etienne, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas tr. L. K. Shook. New York, 1956.

Hinnebusch, William A., The History of the Dominican Order: Intellectual and Cultural Life to 1500, Volume 2. New York, 1973.

Iriarte, Lazaro, Franciscan History: The Three Orders of St. Francis of Assisi tr. Patricia Ross. Chicago, 1982.

Leff, Gordon, Medieval Thought: St. Augustine to Ockham. Middlesex, 1958.

Lull, Ramon, Selected Works of, 2 volumes tr. Anthony Bonner. Princeton, 1985.

Masterpieces of Catholic Literature in Summary Form ed. Frank N. Magill. New York, 1965.

McInerny, Ralph, Ethica Thomistica: The Moral Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. Washington, 1997.

Medieval Philosophy: Selected Readings from Augustine to Buridan ed. Herman Shapiro. New York, 1964.

Nimmo, Duncan, Reform and Division in the Medieval Franciscan Order (1226-1538). Rome, 1987.

Philosophy in the Middle Ages ed. Arthur Hyman and James J. Walsh. Indianapolis, 1984.

Porete, Marguerite, The Mirror of Simple Souls tr. Ellen L. Babinsky. New York, 1991.

Robson, Michael, The Franciscans in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge, 2006.

Salimbene, Chronicle of the Franciscan (1221-1288) tr. G. G. Coulton. Philadelphia, 1972.

Scholastic Miscellany, A: Anselm to Ockham tr. Eugene R. Fairweather. New York, 1970.

Shogimen, Takashi, Ockham and Political Discourse in the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge, 2007.

Suso, Henry, The Exemplar with Two German Sermons tr. Frank Tobin. New York, 1989.

Tauler, Johannes, Sermons tr. Maria Shrady. New York, 1985.

Voragine, Jacobus de, The Golden Legend: Selections tr. Christopher Stace. London, 1998.

Weisheipl, James A., Friar Thomas D’Aquino: His Life, Thought, and Work. Garden City, 1974.

West, Delno C. and Sandra Zimdars-Swartz, Joachim of Fiore: A Study in Spiritual Perception and History. Bloomington, 1983.

Wisdom of Catholicism, The ed. Anton C. Pegis. New York, 1949.

Zupko, Jack, John Buridan: Portrait of a Fourteenth-Century Arts Master. Notre Dame, 2003.

German Empire

Abbott, John S. C., Austria: Its Rise and Present Power. New York, 1882.

Barraclough, Geoffrey, The Origins of Modern Germany. London, 1988.

Berenger, Jean, A History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700 tr. C. A. Simpson. London, 1994.

Carsten, F. L., The Origins of Prussia. Oxford, 1954.

Christiansen, Eric, The Northern Crusades. London, 1997.

Coxe, William, History of the House of Austria 1218 to 1792, Volume 1. London, 1847.

Du Boulay, F. R. H., Germany in the Later Middle Ages. London, 1983.

Haverkamp, Alfred, Medieval Germany 1056-1273 tr. Helga Braun. Oxford, 1988.

Historians’ History of the World, Volume 14: The Germanic Empire ed. Henry Smith Williams. London, 1926.

Luck, James Murray, A History of Switzerland. Palo Alto, 1985.

Menzel, Wolfgang, Germany from the Earliest Period, Volume 2 tr. Mrs. George Horrocks. New York, 1899.

Reinhardt, Kurt F., Germany: 2000 Years, Volume 1. New York, 1961.

Seward, Desmond, The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. London, 1972.

Stubbs, William, Germany in the Later Middle Ages, 1200-1500. New York, 1969.


Andersson, Ingvar, A History of Sweden tr. Carolyn Hannay. London, 1956.

Andersson, Theodore M. and William Ian Miller, Law and Literature in Medieval Iceland: Ljosvetninga saga and Valla-Ljots saga. Stanford, 1989.

Birch, J. H. S., Denmark in History. London, 1938.

Byock, Jesse L., Medieval Iceland: Society, Sagas, and Power. Berkeley, 1988.

Derry, T. K., A History of Scandinavia. Minneapolis, 1979.

Eirik the Red and other Icelandic Sagas tr. Gwyn Jones. Oxford, 1961.

Epic and Saga. New York, 1910.

Eyrbyggja Saga tr. Hermann Palsson and Paul Edwards. London, 1989.

Gjerset, Knut, History of Iceland. New York, 1924.

Gjerset, Knut, History of the Norwegian People. 2 volumes. New York, 1932.

Johannesson, Jon, A History of the Old Icelandic Commonwealth tr. Haraldur Bessason. Manitoba, 1974.

Larsen, Karen, A History of Norway. Princeton, 1948.

Nilsson, Victor, Sweden. New York, 1899.

Njal’s Saga tr. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson. Middlesex, 1960.

Saxo Grammaticus, The History of the Danes tr. Peter Fisher. Cambridge, 1979.

Sawyer, Birgit and Peter, Medieval Scandinavia From Conversion to Reformation, circa 800-1500. Minneapolis, 1993.

Scott, Franklin D., Sweden: The Nation’s History. Minneapolis, 1977.

Seven Viking Romances tr. Hermann Palsson and Paul Edwards. London, 1985.

Sorensen, Sigvart, Norway. New York, 1899.

Spain and Portugal

Bisson, T. N., The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History. Oxford, 1986.

Burgoyne, Jonathan, Reading the Exemplum Right: Fixing the Meaning of El Conde Lucanor. Chapel Hill, 2007.

Chronicle of Alfonso X tr. Shelby Thacker and Jose Escobar. Lexington, 2002.

Estow, Clara, Pedro the Cruel of Castile 1350-1369. Leiden, 1995.

Harvey, L. P., Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500. Chicago, 1990.

Hilgarth, J. N., The Spanish Kingdoms 1250-1516, Volume 1: 1250-1410 Precarious Balance. Oxford, 1976.

Historians’ History of the World, Volume 10 Spain and Portugal ed. Henry Smith Williams. London, 1926.

Juan Manuel, The Book of Count Lucanor and Patronio tr. John E. Keller, L. Clark Keating, and Barbara E. Gaddy. New York, 1993.

Kamen, Henry, The Spanish Inquisition: An Historical Revision. London, 1997.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar, Canon Law and the Archpriest of Hita. Binghamton, 1984.

Kennedy, Hugh, Muslim Spain and Portugal. London, 1996.

Linehan, Peter, History and the Historians of Medieval Spain. Oxford, 1993.

Livermore, H. V., A New History of Portugal. Cambridge, 1976.

Lowney, Chris, A Vanished World: Medieval Spain’s Golden Age of Enlightenment. New York, 2005.

Marques, A. H. de Oliveira, Daily Life in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages tr. S. S. Wyatt. Madison, 1971.

Netanyahu, B., The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. New York, 1995.

Nowell, Charles E., A History of Portugal. New York, 1952.

O’Callaghan, Joseph F., A History of Medieval Spain. Ithaca, 1975.

O’Callaghan, Joseph F., Learned King: The Reign of Alfonso X of Castile. Philadelphia, 1993.

Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1. Madison, 1973.

Ruiz, Juan, The Book of Good Love tr. Elizabeth Drayson MacDonald. London, 1999.

Ruiz, Juan, The Book of True Love tr. Saralyn R. Daly. University Park, 1978.

Scholem, Gershom G., Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. New York, 1974.

Seward, Desmond, The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. London, 1972.

Smith, Bradley, Spain: A History in Art. Garden City, no date.

Smith, Rhea Marsh, Spain: A Modern History. Ann Arbor, 1965.

Stephens, H. Morse, The Story of Portugal. New York, 1891.

Sturcken, H. Tracy, Don Juan Manuel. New York, 1974.

Zohar: An Expository Translation by Nurho de Manhar. San Diego, 1995.

Zohar: The Book of Splendour ed. Gershom G. Scholem. New York, 1949.

Italian City States

Backman, Clifford R., The Decline and Fall of Medieval Sicily: Politics, religion, and economy in the reign of Frederick III, 1296-1337. Cambridge, 1995.

Beck, Hans-Georg et al, History of the Church, Volume 4: From the High Middle Ages to the Eve of the Reformation tr. Anselm Biggs. New York, 1970.

Becker, Marvin B., Florence in Transition, 2 volumes. Baltimore, 1967-68.

Brentano, Robert, Two Churches: England and Italy in the Thirteenth Century. Berkeley, 1968.

Bruckner, Gene, Renaissance Florence. Berkeley, 1983.

Collins, Amanda, Greater than Emperor: Cola di Rienzo (ca. 1313-54) and the World of Fourteenth-Century Rome. Ann Arbor, 2002.

Collison-Morley, Lacy, Naples Through the Centuries. New York, 1924.

Croce, Benedetto, History of the Kingdom of Naples tr. Frances Frenaye. Chicago, 1970.

Gregorovius, Ferdinand, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume 6, Parts 1 and 2 tr. Annie Hamilton. London, 1898.

Historians’ History of the World, Volume 9 Italy ed. Henry Smith Williams. London, 1926.

Jones, Philip, The Italian City-State from Commune to Signoria. Oxford, 1997.

Machiavelli, Niccolo, History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy. Washington, 1901.

Marco Polo, The Travels tr. Ronald Latham. Middlesex, 1958.

Montanelli, Indro and Robert Gervaso, Italy in the Golden Centuries. Chicago, 1967.

Norwich, John Julius, A History of Venice. New York, 1982.

Partner, Peter, The Lands of St Peter: The Papal State in the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissance. Berkeley, 1972.

Pullan, Brian, A History of Early Renaissance Italy from the Mid-Thirteenth to the Mid-Fifteenth Century. London, 1973.

Schevill, Ferdinand, History of Florence from the Founding of the City through the Renaissance. New York, 1936.

Schevill, Ferdinand, Siena: The Story of a Mediaeval Commune. New York, 1909.

Sismondi, J. D. L., History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages recast by William Boulting. London, 1906.

Smith, Denis Mack, A History of Sicily: Medieval Sicily 800-1713. New York, 1968.

Steele, Francesca M., The Beautiful Queen: Joanna I of Naples. New York, 1910.

Vasari, Giorgio, Lives of the Artists, 2 volumes tr. George Bull. Middlesex, 1965, 1987.

Vasari, Giorgio, The Lives of the Artists tr. Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella. Oxford, 1991.

Waley, Daniel, The Italian City-Republics. New York, 1969.

Dante and Marsilius

Cassell, Anthony K., The Monarchia Controversy. Washington, 2004.

Chubb, Thomas Caldecot, Dante and His World. Boston, 1966.

Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Volume 3 Part 1: Ockham to the Speculative Mystics. Garden City, 1953.

Dante, The Banquet tr. Christopher Ryan. Saratoga, 1989.

Dante Alighieri, The Banquet (Il Convito) tr. Katharine Hillard. London, 1889.

Dante Alighieri, The Comedy of, 3 volumes tr. Dorothy L. Sayers and Barbara Reynolds. London, 1949, 1955, 1962.

Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy, 3 volumes tr. Mark Musa. New York, 1984, 1985, 1986.

Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy tr. Charles Eliot Norton. Chicago, 1952.

Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy, 3 volumes tr. John D.  Sinclair. New York, 1939.

Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy of tr. Carlyle-Okay-Wicksteed. New York, 1959.

Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy of tr. Henry Francis Cary. New York, 1844.

Dante Alighieri, La Vita Nuova (Poems of Youth) tr. Barbara Reynolds. Middlesex, 1969.

Dante, Monarchy and Three Political Letters tr. Donald Nicholl. London, 1954.

Dante Alighieri, On World-Government (De Monarchia) tr. Herbert W. Schneider. Indianapolis, 1957.

Dante Alighieri, The Paradiso tr. John Ciardi. New York, 1970.

Dante Alighieri, The Purgatorio tr. John Ciardi. New York, 1961.

Hembleben, Sylvester John, Plans for World Peace through Six Centuries. Chicago, 1943.

Hollander, Robert, Dante: A Life in Works. New Haven, 2001.

Lewis, R. W.  B., Dante: A Penguin Life. New York, 2001.

Marsilius of Padua, The Defender of Peace (The Defensor pacis) tr. Alan Gewirth. New York, 1956.

Medieval Political Philosophy ed. Ralph Lerner and Muhsin Mahdi. Itaca, 1963.

Philosophy in the Middle Ages ed. Arthur Hyman and James J. Walsh. Indianapolis, 1984.

Ruud, Jay, Dante: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York, 2008.

Thomas Henry and Dana Lee Thomas, Living Biographies of Famous Novelists. New York, 1943.

Petrarca and Bocaccio

Baron, Hans, The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism and Republican Liberty in an Age of Classicism and Tyranny, One-volume edition. Princeton, 1966.

Bergin, Thomas G., Petrarch. New York, 1970.

Bishop, Morris, Petrarch and His World. London, 1963.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, Amorosa Visione tr. Robert Hollander et al. Hanover, 1986.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Decameron tr. Richard Aldington, Garden City, 1930.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Decameron tr. G. H. McWilliam. London, 1972.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Decameron tr. Mark Musa and Peter Bondanella. New York, 1982.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Decameron: 21 Novelle, Contemporary Reactions, Modern Criticism ed. Mark Musa and Peter E. Bondanella. New York, 1977.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, Famous Women tr. Virginia Brown. Cambridge, 2001.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Fates of Illustrious Men tr. Louis Brewer Hall. New York, 1965.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Life of Dante tr. Vincenzo Zin Bollettino. New York, 1990.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Most Pleasant and Delectable Questions of Love tr. Thomas Bell. New York, 1931.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, The Story of Troilus tr. R. K. Gordon. New York, 1964.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, Thesid of the Nuptials of Emilia tr. Vincenzo Traversa. New York, 2002.

Branca, Vittore, Boccaccio: The Man and His Works tr. Richard Monges. New York, 1976.

Earthly Republic, The: Italian Humanists on Government and Society ed. Benjamin G. Kohl and Ronald G. Witt. Pennsylvania, 1978.

Garin, Eugenio, Italian Humanism: Philosophy and Civic Life in the Renaissance tr. Peter Munz. Oxford, 1965.

Hollway-Calthrop, H. C., Petrarch: His Life and Times. New York, 1972.

Humanist Educational Treatises tr. Craig W. Kallendorf. Cambridge, 2002.

Mann, Nicholas, Petrarch. Oxford, 1984.

Petrarca, Francesco, Invectives tr. David Marsh. Cambridge, 2003.

Petrarch: The First Modern Scholar and Man of Letters tr. James Harvey Robinson. New York, 1898.

Petrarch, Francis, My Secret Book tr. J. G. Nichols. London, 2002.

Petrarch, Selected Sonnets, Odes and Letters ed. Thomas Goddard Bergin. New York, 1966.

Petrarch, Sonnets & Songs tr. Anna Maria Armi. New York, 1946.

Petrarch, The Poetry of tr. David Young. New York, 2004.

Petrarch’s Book Without a Name tr. Norman P. Zacour. Toronto, 1973.

Renaissance Philosophy, Volume 1: The Italian Philosophers: Selected Readings from Petrarch to Bruno tr. Arturo B. Fallico and Herman Shapiro. New York, 1967.

Siegel, Jerrold E., Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism: The Union of Eloquence and Wisdom, Petrarch to Valla. Princeton, 1968.

Wilkins, Ernest Hatch, Life of Petrarch. Chicago, 1961.

Wilkins, Ernest Hatch, Petrarch’s Eight Years in Milan. Cambridge, 1958.

Wilkins, Ernest H., Petrarch’s Later Years. Cambridge, 1959.

Wilkins, Ernest Hatch, Studies in the Life and Works of Petrarch. Cambridge, 1955.

Witt, Ronad G., In the Footsteps of the Ancients: The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni. Leiden, 2000.

Low Countries and Burgundy

Blok, Petrus Johannes, History of the People of the Netherlands, Volumes 1-2 tr. Oscar A. Bierstadt and  Ruth Putnam. New York, 1898.

Devotio Moderna Basic Writings tr. John Van Engen. New York, 1988.

Huizinga, J., The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in France and the Netherlands in the Dawn of the Renaissance. Garden City, 1924.

Hyma, Albert, The Christian Renaissance: A History of the “Devotio Moderna.” Hamden, 1965.

Meeüs, Adrien de, History of the Belgians tr. G. Gordon. New York, 1962.

Nicolas, David, Medieval Flanders. London, 1992.

Nijsten, Gerard, In the Shadow of Burgundy: The Court of Guelders in the Late Middle Ages tr. Tanis Guest. Cambridge, 2004.

Ruusbroec, John, The Spiritual Espousals and Other Works tr. James A. Wiseman. New York, 1985.

Ruysbroeck, John of, The Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage, The Sparkling Stone, The Book of Supreme Truth tr. C. A. Wynschenk Dom. London, 1916.

Vlekke, Bernard H. M., Evolution of the  Dutch Nation. New York, 1945.


Adams, Henry, Mont-Saint-Michel & Chartres. Garden City, 1933.

Beaumanoir, Philippe de, The Coutumes de Beauvaisis tr. R. R. P. Akhurst. Philadelphia, 1992.

Beer, Jeannette, Beasts of Love: Richard de Fournival’s Bestiaire d’amour  and a Woman’s Response. Toronto, 2003.

Boneot, Honoré, The Tree of Battles tr. G. W.  Coopland. Cambridge, 1949.

Capetian Women ed. Kathleen Nolan. New York, 2003.

Cazelles, Brigitte, The Lady as Saint: A Collection of French Hagiographic Romances of the Thirteenth Century. Philadelphia, 1991.

Cohen, Esther, The Crossroads of Justice: Law and Culture in Late Medieval France. Leiden, 1993.

Fabliaux, Fair and Foul tr. John DuVal. Binghamton, 1992.

Famiglietti, R. C., Royal Intrigue: Crisis at the Court of Charles VI 1392-1420. New York, 1986.

Fox, John, A Literary History of France: The Middle Ages. London, 1974.

Froissart, John, An Anthology of Narravtive & Lyric Poetry tr. Kristen M. Figg. New York, 2001.

Froissart, John, Chronicles tr. Geoffrey Brereton. Middlesex, 1978.

Froissart, John, Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Adjoining Countries, 2 volumes tr.  Thomas Johnes. New York, 1901.

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose tr. Charles Dahlberg. Princeton, 1971.

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose tr. Harry W. Robbins. New York, 1962.

Guizot, M., History of France, Volume 2 tr. Robert Black. New York, 1900.

Historians’ History of the World, Volume 11 France ed. Henry Smith Williams. London, 1926.

Holmes, Urban Tigner Jr., A History of Old French Literature. New York, 1962.

Kitchin, G. W., A History of France, Volume 1. Oxford, 1899.

Ladurie, Emmanuel Le Roy, Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error tr. Barbara Bray. New York, 1978.

Machaut, Guillaume de, Le Confort d’ami (Comfort for a Friend) ed. R.  Barton Palmer. New York, 1992.

Machaut, Guillaume de, The Fountain of Love (La Fonteinne Amoureuse) and Two Other Love Vision Poems tr. R. Barton Palmer. New York, 1993.

Machaut, Guillaume de, Le Jugement du roy de Behaigne and Remede de Fortune tr. James I. Wimsatt and William W. Kibler. Athens, 1988.

Machaut, Guillaume de, Le Livre dou Voir Dit (The Book of the True Poem) tr. R. Barton Palmer. New York, 1998.

Medieval France: A Companion to French Studies ed. Arthur Tilley. New York, 1922.

Medieval France: An Encylopedia ed. Willam W. Kibler and Grover A. Zinn. New York, 1995.

Medieval French Plays tr. Richard Axton and John Stevens. Oxford, 1971.

Neillands, Robin, The Hundred Years War. London, 1990.

Perroy, Edouard, The Hundred Years War tr. W. B. Wells. New York, 1951.

Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII ed. Charles T. Wood. New York, 1967.

Romance of Reynard the Fox, The tr. D. D. R. Owen. Oxford, 1994.

Saints and Sinners in Old Romance: Poems of Feudal France and England tr. Charles Maxwell Lancaster. New York, 1971.

Seward, Desmond, The Hundred Years War: The English in France, 1337-1453. New York, 1978.

Strayer, Joseph R., The Reign of Philip the Fair. Princeton, 1980.

Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War, Volume 1: Trial by Battle. Philadelphia, 1990.

Tuchman, Barbara W., A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York, 1978.

Vernier, Richard, The Flower of Chivalry: Bertrand du Guesclin and the Hundred Years War. Suffolk, 2003.

England, Scotland and Ireland

Ashley, Maurice, Great Britain to 1688. Ann Arbor, 1961.

Baker, Nina Brown, Robert Bruce: King of Scots. New York, 1948.

Barber, Richard, Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitane. London, 1978.

Barrow, G. W. S., Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000-1306. London, 1981.

Barrow, G. W. S., Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. Edinburgh, 2005.

Baugh, Albert C., The Middle Ages: The Middle English Period (1100-1500) in a Literary History of England, Volume 1. New York, 1967.

Celtic Miscellany, A tr. Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson. Middlesex, 1971.

Costain, Thomas B., The Three Edwards. Garden City, 1962.

Costain, Thomas B., The Last Plantagenets. Garen City, 1962.

Coulton, G. G., Medieval Panorama: The English Scene from Conquest to Reformation. Cleveland, 1955.

Davies, John, A History of Wales. London, 1993.

Dobson, R. B., The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381. London, 1970.

Du Boulay, F. R. H., An Age of Ambition: English Society in the Late Middle Ages. New York, 1970.

England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages ed. James Lydon. Blackrock, 1981.

Finerty, John F., Ireland: The People’s History of Ireland, Volume 1. New York, 1904.

Fletcher, Christopher, Richard II: Manhood, Youth, and Politics, 1377-99. Oxford, 2008.

Froissart, John, Chronicles tr. Geoffrey Brereton. Middlesex, 1978.

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Haines, Roy Martin, King Edward II. Montreal, 2003.

Hume, David, The History of England, Volume 2. Philadelphia, 1876.

Keen, M. H., England in the Later Middle Ages: A Political History. London, 2003.

Malone, Kemp and Albert C. Baugh, The Middle Ages: A Literary History of England, volume 1. New York, 1967.

Mathew, Gervase, The  Court of Richard II. New York, 1968.

McKisack, May, The Fourteenth Century 1307-1399 (Oxford History of England). Oxford, 1959.

Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English ed. Thomas H. Ohlgren. Gloucestershire, 1998.

Myers, A. R., England in the Late Middle Ages. Middlesex, 1963.

Nicholson, Ranald, Scotland: The Later Middle Ages. Edinburgh, 1974.

1000 Years of Irish Prose ed. Vivian Mercier and David H. Greene. New York, 1952.

Ormrod, W. M., The Reign of Edward III: Crown and Political Society in England 1327-1377. New Haven, 1990.

Otway-Ruthven, A. J., A History of Medieval Ireland. London, 1968.

Paris, Matthew, English History from the year 1235 to 1273, 3 volumes tr. J. A. Giles. London, 1852.

Plantagenet Chronicles, The ed. Elizabeth Hallam. New York, 1986.

Platt, Colin, Medieval England: A Social History and Archaeology frm the Conquest to 1600 AD. New York, 1978.

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Powicke, Maurice, The Thirteenth Century 1216-1307 (Oxford History of England). Oxford, 1962.

Private Life in the Fifteenth Century: Illustrated Letters of the Paston Family ed. Roger Virgoe. New York, 1989.

Rhys, John and David Brynmor-Jones, The Welsh People. London, 1923.

Scot, Walter, Scotland, Volume 1. New York, 1901.

Seton, Anya, Katherine. Boston, 1954.

Seward, Desmond, The Hundred Years War: The English in France, 1337-1453. New York, 1978.

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Stenton, Doris Mary, English Society in the Early Middle Ages (1066-1307). Baltimore, 1962.

Strickland, Agnes, Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest, Volume 2. Philadelphia, 1902.

Trevelyan, G. M., History of England From the Earliest Times to the Reformation. Garden City, 1952.

Tuck, Anthony, Crown and Nobility: England 1272-1461. Oxford, 1999.

William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regvm Anglorvm: The History of the English Kings tr. R. A. B. Mynors. Oxford, 1998.

Mystics, Wyclif, Gower and Chaucer

British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary ed. Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft. New York, 1952.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Canterbury Tales tr. J. U. Nicolson. New York, 1934.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Canterbury Tales tr. Nevill Coghill. Middlesex, 1977.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Canterbury Tales ed. J. C. Cawley. London, 1996.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Canterbury Tales: Nine Tales and the General Prologue ed. V. A. Kolve and Glending Olson. New York, 1989.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Love Visions tr. Brian Stone. Middlesex, 1983.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Troilus and Cressida tr. George Philip Krapp. New York, 1932.

Chaucer: Sources and Backgrounds ed. Robert P. Miller. New York, 1977.

Chief Pre-Shakespearean Dramas ed. Joseph Quincy Adams. Boston, 1924.

Clark, Henry W., History of English Nonconformity from Wyclif to the Close of the Nineteenth Century, Volume 1. London, 1911.

Cloud of Unknowing, The tr. Clifton Wolters. Middlesex, 1961.

Cloud of Unknowing and the Book of Privy Counseling ed. William Johnston. New York, 1973.

Comper, Frances M. M., The Life Richard Rolle Together with an Edition of his English Lyrics. New York, 1928.

Complete Works of the Gawain Poet, The tr. John Gardner. Chicago, 1965.

Dahmer, Joseph H., The Prosecution of John Wyclyf. New Haven, 1952.

English Mystery Plays: A Selection ed. Peter Happé. Middlesex, 1975.

Everyman and Medieval Miracle Plays ed. A. C. Cawley. New York, 1959.

Fisher, John H., John Gower: Moral Philosopher and Friend of Chaucer. New York, 1964.

Four Morality Plays ed. Peter Happé. Middlesex, 1979.

Fox’s Book of Martyrs ed. William Byron Forbush. Grand Rapids, 1954.

Gardner, John, The Life and Times of Chaucer. New York, 1977.

Gower, John, Confessio Amantis (The Lover’s Shrift) tr. Terence Tiller. Baltimore, 1963.

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Hall, Louis Brewer, The Perilous Vision of John Wyclif. Chicago, 1983.

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Lahey, Stephen E., John Wyclif. Oxford, 2009.

Lahey, Stephen E., Philosophy and Politics in the Thought of John Wyclif. Cambridge, 2003.

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Lecher, John Wycliffe and His English Precursors tr. Lorimer and Green. London, 1904.

Lowe, Ben, Imagining Peace: A History of Early English Pacifist ideas, 1340-1560. University Park, 1997.

Mandeville, The Travels of Sir John. New York, 1921.

Medieval and  Tudor Drama ed. John Gassner. New York, 1987.

Middle English Lyrics ed. Maxwell S. Luria and Richard L. Hoffman. New York, 1974.

Nicholson, Peter, Love & Ethics in Gower’s Confessio Amantis. Ann Arbor, 2005.

Pantin, W. A., The English Church in the Fourteenth Century. Toronto, 1955.

Pearl, The tr. Mary Vincent Hillman. Notre Dame, 1961.

Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ed. A. C. Cawley and J. J. Anderson. London, 1976.

Religious Drama 2: Mystery and Morality Plays ed. E. Martin Browne. New York, 1958.

Rolle, Richard, The English Writings tr. Rosamund S. Allen. New York, 1988.

Rolle, Richard, The Fire of Love and the Mending of Life tr. M. L. del Mastro. Garden City, 1981.

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Speirs, John, Medieval English Poetry: The Non-Chaucerian Tradition. London, 1971.

Workman, Herbert B., John Wyclif, 2 volumes. Oxford, 1926.

Copyright © 2009 by Sanderson Beck

This book has been published as Medieval Europe 1250-1400.
For information on ordering click here.


Crusaders and Byzantine Decline 1250-1400
Eastern Europe 1250-1400
Catholic Ethics 1250-1350
German Empire 1250-1400
Scandinavia 1250-1400
Castile, Aragon, Granada, and Portugal 1250-1400
Italian City States 1250-1400
Dante and Marsilius
Petrarca and Boccaccio
Low Countries and Burgundy 1250-1400
France and National War 1250-1400
England, Scotland, and Ireland 1250-1400
Summary and Evaluation


World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1400
Chronology of Europe to 1400

BECK index